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Apprendre et raisonner : approche développementale et socio-cognitive du rôle des situations collectives et individuelles d’apprentissage

Abstract : Research on how children conceptualize the principles of physics classically emphasizes intraindividual processes or collective situations. Individual situations and their consequences on the development of concepts are poorly defined. A pre-/post-test study was conducted in a school setting with 106 ten-year-old children. Children had to predict, justify and generally explain the phenomenon of buoyancy exhibited by objects immersed in water. During the training phases, they were free to use objects and instruments to write a general explanation. This task was repeated three times, which enable us to compare four experimental conditions: (1) children who worked individually; (2) children who worked in close collaboration; (3) children who began working individually, then worked in a dyad, and then worked again individually; and (4) children who began working in dyads, then worked individually, and then worked again in dyads. Evolution of cognition differed. When they are trained regularly in dyads, children develop better justifications of their particular predictions. Working in dyads enriches their argumentative repertoire to describe objects’ reactions. The individual-dyadic-individual training was the only experimental condition that led to progressively more accurate predictions. This specific combination may lead to a restructuration of cognitive processes. Each combination of social situation has a different effect on the childrens’ ability to predict, justify and generally explain. During the training, general and specific analyses of the practices of the children helped us to propose a detailed interpretation: these analyses show that children are confronted with different contradictions depending not only on their interactions with peers, but also with heterogeneous objects and tools. Future research is proposed.
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Romain Boissonnade. Apprendre et raisonner : approche développementale et socio-cognitive du rôle des situations collectives et individuelles d’apprentissage. Psychologie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II; Université de Neuchâtel (Suisse). Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011TOU20097⟩. ⟨tel-00663351⟩

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