. La-bibliothèque-de-lagache, Dans le cas des autres bibliothèques, l'excès de sources rouges est visible même pour la médiane des points pour des redshifts z < 0 Pour conclure, lorsque je tiens compte des barres d'erreurs, la médiane de la couleur des sources est expliquée par les templates et ce, quelque soit le redshift. En revanche, la couleur 160/24 (panneaux de droite de la Fig. 9.8) est beaucoup moins bien expliquée par les templates de ces trois bibliothèques que la couleur 100/24 En effet, les templates ne reproduisent pas la couleur 160/24 de la médiane (courbes orange de la Fig. 9.8) dans les intervalles de redshifts suivants : 0.6 < z < 1.5 dans le cas de la bibliothèque de Chary and Elbaz Cette fois-ci, même en tenant compte des barres d'erreurs, les templates n'arrivent pas toujoursàtoujoursà reproduire les couleurs 160/24 observées. Cet excès a déjàdéjàété observé par Lee et al. (2010) dans le champ COSMOSégalementCOSMOSégalement Les observationsàobservationsà 160 µm avec MIPSétantMIPSétant très rapidement limitées par la confusion, ils ont dû employer la méthode d'empilement (stacking en anglais) pour obtenir leurs sourcesàsourcesà cette longueur d'onde. Il s'agit l` a uniquement d'uné etude statistique Je montrè a la Fig, Les barres d'erreurs de ces points médians ontétéontété calculées par la métode du MAD, pour Median Absolute Deviation. La médiane pour la couleur 100/24 n'est finalement pas trop mal expliquée par les templates Le même excès de sources avec un fort rapport de flux 160/24 est observé globalement aux mêmes redshifts (0.3 < z < 1) que ce que j'ai trouvé avec PACSàPACSà la Fig. 9.8, 2001.

. En, sont bien reproduitesàreproduitesà grand z par les 3 jeux de templates, il est légitime de se demander dans quelle mesure utiliser ces templatesà templatesà grand z est justifié si mêmè a bas z, l` a o` u ils sont censéscensésêtre les plus performants, il y a unprobì eme. L'importance de ces templates prend tout son sens lorsqu'on pense que les luminosités infrarouges de nos sources sont obtenuesàobtenuesà partir de la méthode d'ajustement des SEDs menée avec ces bibliothèques spectrales

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. Au-beurre, . .. Au-sucre-et, and . Au-beurre, La liste vâ etre longue car en trois ans, le SAp a vu défiler un nombre impressionnant de personnes toutes aussi sympathiques les unes que les autres. Mercì a vous tous pour nos mémorables p'tits déjs sponsorisés, Il me semblé evident de remercier tous mes camarades de jeu du SAp pour les fameuses soirées A&A et nos pique-niques au soleil. Mercí evidemmentàevidemmentà Sandrine, pour.... (l` a aussi la liste vâ etre longue), nos midis piscine ou coursè a pieds, nos pauses cafés, nos pauses vitaminées, nos soirées mojitos, tes nombreux conseils et ton amitié ! Mercí evidemmentàevidemmentà Arnaud et Nico ! ! Le CEA n'aurait pasétépasété aussi agréable sans vous ! Merci aussì a Fadia, ma cobureau et ma 'roomate' de conférence

G. Laurène, K. , L. Sacha, . Marco, . Diane et al., mes cobureaux et cobureauttes successifs, merci de m'avoir supportée même dans les moments de panique Un immense mercì a Maud, bienévidemment bienévidemment j'en oublie sans doute et je m'en excuse

M. Je-voudrais-aussi-remercier-mes-amis-de, Laure, bienévidemmentbienévidemment, pour, entre autres, nos mémorables soirées fajitas/ films d'avions (vengeance...), ces trois années n'auraient pasétépasété les mêmes sans toi ! Jérémy, pour avoir toujours sû etre présent etàetà côté de moi malgré la distance. Benjamin, pour ton inconditionnel soutien et... ton fameux " rien dans les manches, Isa, pour avoir toujours su me faire rire pendant ces trois ans

L. Julien and . Mélanie, Rafou pour tous les bons moments passés ensemble, Mercí egalementàegalementà Jeyhan et Vivi pour tous nos bons moments passés aux quatre coins de la planète

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