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Ecologie évolutive de la malaria aviaire : approches expérimentales des relations entre Plasmodium relictum et le canari domestique

Abstract : Host-parasite interaction became one of the main topics of evolutionary sciences researches. One of the major issues raised by these studies is to understand why some parasites cause fatal diseases while others remain relatively mild to their hosts. In this challenge attempting to take up the evolutionary biologist and the medical sciences, we focused on avian malaria, and more specifically on its most common parasite: Plasmodium relictum. In performing experimental infections in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), we wanted to understand what factors related to parasite and birds characteristics, could influence Plasmodium relictum virulence. We highlighted that factors such as infectious past, parasites dose, prevalence in bird’s population and social interactions between individuals could modulate costs of such infection. Virulence is a composite trait that depends on the host’s exploitation by parasites but also the host’s immune response against the infection. We were able to show that in our experimental system using an approach of immunological ecology. Finally we focused on the conditions favouring the virulence evolution: an essential point to understand emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases and to develop strategies to control these diseases.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 1, 2012 - 10:52:16 AM
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Elise Cellier Cellier-Holzem. Ecologie évolutive de la malaria aviaire : approches expérimentales des relations entre Plasmodium relictum et le canari domestique. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010DIJOS037⟩. ⟨tel-00665065⟩

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