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Rôle des ennemis naturels dans la lutte biologique contre le puceron cendré, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera aphididae) en vergers de pommiers

Abstract : In the current political and social context (reduced use of pesticides), there is a need for the development of alternative solutions to control the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera : Aphididae), especially in organic farming. One of these alternatives is the increased and improved use of natural enemies against this pest. In this thesis, we provided some elements of responses regarding this problem in term of research study and technical application. Based on weekly observations of arthropods in marked shoots infested by D. plantaginea, we demonstrated the negative effects of the natural enemies on the development of D. plantaginea but this effect was unsufficient to provide an effective regulation avoiding economic damages. We also showed the possible and positive influence of ant presence on the infestation dynamics and thei rnegative effect on natural enemies. Among the natural enemy groups, three were the most abundant and appeared in a temporary sequence : syrphids arrived first, at the beginning of the infestation,followed by coccinellids and earwigs that arrived later.To enhance the role of the natural enemies against D. plantaginea, we also need other practices that enable to reduce significantly the number of pesticide applied. This is the case of a very recent innovation : the Alt'Carpo nets. Despite its negative influence on the abundance and richness of the natural enemies, especially the coccinellids, present in the colonies of D. plantaginea, there was a negative influence of these nets on the development of D. plantaginea populations (both at the shootand tree levels) especially when the nets were closed in mid-April (coinciding with classical netting trees for controlling populations of codling moth). We additionally showed that the highest reductionin D. plantaginea population was observed in the presence of at least one active natural enemy in the marked shoot. This gives support to the combination of these methods of control, one biological and the other physical, to regulate D. plantaginea populations. Based on their precocity for Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera : Syrphidae) and their abundance for both Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Dermaptera : Forficulidae) and E.balteatus observed under field conditions, the syrphids and earwigs appear as good candidates for controlling the D. plantaginea populations. We first demonstrated under laboratory conditions using detached plantain leaves in Petri dishes conditions the potency of these two predators, especially a tolder stages, against D plantaginea. The optimal predation occurred at 20°C for both predators. Using young apple trees, we further studied the possible interactions between these predators and showed a small and positive interaction when the D. plantaginea density was not limiting. But at low densities of aphids, the results suggested a possible negative interaction (a sign of intraguild predation) between these two predators. These results from laboratory studies have led us to study the augmentative release of these two predators, under field conditions, in early spring for controlling D. plantaginea populations. The releases of F. auricularia (third instar nymph) did not result in lower D. plantaginea populations. This confirmed the difficulty of successful releases of natural enemies under theconditions of open orchards, and demonstrated the need for improving or creating conditions that canpromote the success of the released natural enemies. However, despite closed conditions, the early release of E. balteatus under Alt'Carpo nets was also not efficient against D. plantaginea.This thesis, through several studies under different conditions (controlled, semi-field and field), represented an important first step that should ideally lead to the development of a dynamic model of the development of D. plantaginea at the shoot level, taking into account the presence of ants and therole of natural enemies and the influence of some agricultural practices (for example Alt'Carpo nets and natural enemy releases). Further studies are also needed to validate our results (effects of Alt'Carpo nets) and to optimise the releases of natural enemies
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Hazem Dib. Rôle des ennemis naturels dans la lutte biologique contre le puceron cendré, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera aphididae) en vergers de pommiers. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AVIG0635⟩. ⟨tel-00665080⟩

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