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Development of new approaches to study the role of chromatin in dna damage response

Muhammad Shoaib 1 
1 IMC (UMR 8126) - Interactions moléculaires et cancer
UMR8126 - Signalisation, noyaux et innovations en cancérologie
Abstract : In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packed into chromatin, a hierarchically organized complex composed of DNA and histone and nonhistone proteins. In this thesis we have addressed the role of chromatin in cellular response to DNA damage (DDR) using various methodologies encompassing functional genomics and proteomics. First, we analyzed histone post-translational modifications (PTM) in the context of specific kind of DNA lesions (ICL-Interstrand Crosslinks) in Fanconi anemia using quantitative proteomics methodology, SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids during Cell Culture). Using mass spectrometry (MS), we have successfully identified and quantified a number of histone PTM marks in histone H3 and H4, mainly acetylations and methylations,which have shown dependence upon functional FA-pathway. As a next step, we applied a functional genomics approach to study DDR in FA cells. In this analysis we first monitored the expression profile of histone modifying enzymes related to histone acetylations and methylations. Our results suggest some correlations between histone PTMs and gene expression of histone modifying enzymes, although conclusive evidence warrants further investigations. Next, we analyzed the total transcriptome after DNA damage induction in FA mutant and wild type cells. We also included in this analysis IR irradiation, in an attempt to dissociate more generic DDR from more specific changes that are associated with the role of FA pathway to the DNA ICLs. By performing a factorial interaction analysis, we were able to isolate the part of transcriptional response to DNA damage that was requiring functional FA pathway, as well as the genes that were sensitized to DNA damage by the inactivation of FA pathway. In the final part of the thesis, we attempted to solve one of the limitations that we encountered in the histone PTM analysis. The current approaches used to study histone PTMs from particular loci involves classical chromatin immunoprecipitation, which due to involvement of formaldehyde crosslinking render the protein part mostly unavailable for MS-based proteomics. We have proposed a novel methodology, which is based upon the biotin tagging of histones proximal to a protein of interest and subsequent purification of nucleosomes carrying the tagged histone. This methodology does not involve any crosslinking, enabling us to purify histones from specific loci, and subject them to large scale MS-based histone PTM analysis. A time dimension can also be added to our approach, as we can follow the modification status of particular fraction of histones once they get biotinylated. Another advantage is the use of alternate variant histones, which allows us to study the PTM profile of different functional states of chromatin. This methodology certainly has an edge on current techniques to study histone PTMs pattern associated with a particular protein of interest or with particular chromatin state.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 15, 2012 - 11:45:39 AM
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Muhammad Shoaib. Development of new approaches to study the role of chromatin in dna damage response. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011PA11T058⟩. ⟨tel-00670363⟩

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