W. R. Gebbie, C. Hilsum, A. W. Pryce, and V. Roberts, Atmospheric transmission in the 1 to 14 ?m region, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol.206, pp.1084-87, 1951.

M. E. Thomas and R. I. Joseph, Optical phonon characteristics of diamond, beryllia, and cubic zirconia, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials II, pp.120-126, 1990.
DOI : 10.1117/12.22490

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida et al., PROGRESS IN CERAMIC LASERS, Progress in ceramics lasers, pp.397-429, 2006.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.matsci.36.011205.152926

D. C. Harris, Development of hot-pressed and chemical-vapor-deposited zinc sulfide and zinc selenide in the United States for optical windows, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials (Proceedings Paper), p.6545, 2007.

K. L. Lewis, G. S. Arthur, and S. A. Banyard, Hydrogen-related defects in vapour-deposited zinc sulphide, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.66, issue.1, pp.125-136
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0248(84)90083-6

M. E. Hills, Preparation, Properties, and Development of Calcium Lanthanum Sulfide as an 8-to 12-µm Transmitting Ceramic, Report from the Naval Weapons Center, 1989.

P. L. Provenzano, S. I. Boldish, and W. B. White, Vibrational spectra of ternary sulfides with the Th3P4 structure, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.12, issue.9, pp.939-946, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(77)90106-4

D. L. Chess, C. A. Chess, J. V. Biggers, and W. B. White, Processing Ternary Sulfide Ceramics: Powder Preparation, Sintering, and Hot-Pressing, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.297, issue.1, pp.18-22, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-3203(72)90027-1

W. B. White, D. Chess, C. A. Chess, and J. V. Biggers, <title>CaLa<formula><inf><roman>2</roman></inf></formula>S<formula><inf><roman>4</roman></inf></formula>: Ceramic Window Material For The 8 to 14 ??m Region</title>, Emerging Optical Materials, pp.38-43, 1981.
DOI : 10.1117/12.932482

D. L. Chess, C. A. Chess, and W. B. White, Precursor Powders for Sulfide Ceramics Prepared by Evaporative Decomposition of Solutions, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.5, issue.18, pp.205-206, 1983.
DOI : 10.1021/ie50457a020

D. W. Roy, <title>Progress In The Development Of Ternary Sulfides For Use From 8 to 14 pm</title>, Emerging Optical Materials, p.24, 1981.
DOI : 10.1117/12.932480

K. J. Saunders, T. Y. Wong, T. M. Hartnett, R. W. Tustison, and R. L. Gentilman, <title>Current and Future Development of Calcium Lanthanum Sulfide</title>, Infrared and Optical Transmitting Materials, p.72, 1986.
DOI : 10.1117/12.936418

D. C. Harris, M. E. Hills, R. L. Gentilman, K. J. Saunders, and T. Y. Wong, Fabrication and ESR characterization of transparent CaLa 2 S 4, Advanced Ceramic Materials, issue.21, pp.74-78, 1987.

M. E. Hills, Preparations, properties and development of calcium lanthanum sulfide as an 8-to 12-micrometer transmitting ceramic, Naval weapons center, 1989.

K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, K. J. Marsh, and A. P. Jones, Recent developments in the fabrication of rare-earth chalcogenide materials for infrared optical applications, Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, pp.21-28, 1983.

J. A. Savage, K. L. Lewis, B. E. Kinsman, A. R. Wilson, and R. Riddle, <title>Fabrication of Infrared Optical Ceramics in the CaLa<formula><inf><roman>2</roman></inf></formula>S<formula><inf><roman>4</roman></inf></formula> - La<formula><inf><roman>2</roman></inf></formula>S<formula><inf><roman>3</roman></inf></formula> Solid Solution System</title>, Infrared and Optical Transmitting Materials, p.79, 1986.
DOI : 10.1117/12.936419

J. A. Beswick, D. J. Pedder, J. C. Lewis, and F. W. Ainger, New infra-red window materials, New optical materials, SPIE Proceedings, p.12, 1983.
DOI : 10.1117/12.935470

P. J. Walker and R. C. Ward, The preparation of some ternary sulphides MR2S4 (M = Ca, Cd; R = La,Sm,Er) and the melt growth of CaLa2S4, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.19, issue.6, pp.717-725, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(84)90028-X

W. G. Eversole, Synthesis of diamond, p.187, 1962.

B. V. Derjaguin, Synthesis of diamond at low pressure, Scientific American, issue.102, 1972.

J. C. Angus, H. A. Will, and W. S. Stanko, Growth of Diamond Seed Crystals by Vapor Deposition, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.39, issue.6, pp.2915-2922, 1968.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1656693

S. Matsumoto, Y. Sato, M. Kamo, and N. Setaka, Vapor Deposition of Diamond Particles from Methane, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol.21, issue.Part 2, No. 4, pp.183-185, 1982.
DOI : 10.1143/JJAP.21.L183

Y. Saito, S. Matsuda, and S. Nogita, Synthesis of diamond by decomposition of methane in microwave plasma, Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol.24, issue.5, pp.565-568, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01728692

D. C. Harris, Review of Navy Program to Develop Optical Quality Diamond Windows and Domes, 2002.

S. J. Harris and D. G. Goodwin, Growth on the reconstructed diamond (100) surface, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.97, issue.1, pp.23-28, 1993.
DOI : 10.1021/j100103a007

W. D. Partlow, R. E. Witkowski, and J. P. Mchugh, CVD diamond coatings for the infrared by optical brazing, Applications of diamond films and related materials, p.163, 1991.

R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, G. B. Brandt, J. S. Schruben, R. A. Hoffman et al., Fabrication and evaluation of erosion???resistant multispectral optical windows, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.49, issue.6, pp.3133-3139, 1978.
DOI : 10.1063/1.325306

D. C. Harris, Development of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited for Infrared optical Applications, Status report and summary of properties, 1994.

D. C. Harris, Materials for infrared windows and domes, spie press, 1999.

P. Aubry, A. Bensalah, P. Gredin, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien et al., Synthesis and optical characterizations of Yb-doped CaF2 ceramics, Optical Materials, vol.31, issue.5, pp.750-753, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.optmat.2008.03.022

B. Anne-cécile, Elaboration d'une céramique transparente de Yb:Sc2O3 pour applications laser Thèse de doctorat : Matériaux Céramiques et Traitements de Surface, 2008.

M. G. Azoulay and M. Roth, Recent progress in the growth and characterization of large Ge single crystals for IR optics and microelectronics, Proceedings of SPIE, 1535, pp.35-45, 1991.

P. S. Klocek, L. E. Boucher, and M. W. , <title>Semiconductor Infrared Optical Materials</title>, Infrared Optical Materials IV, pp.65-78, 1988.
DOI : 10.1117/12.945853

S. J. Bass and P. E. Oliver, Pulling of gallium phosphide crystals by liquid encapsulation, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.3, issue.4, pp.3-4, 1968.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0248(68)90155-3

P. B. Klocek, M. W. Trombetta, J. M. Trotta, and A. Patrick, High-resistivity and conductive gallium arsenide for IR optical components, Proceedings of SPIE 1760, pp.74-85, 1992.

W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering, sixth revised and updated edition, optical sciences, 2006.

J. M. Baranowski, J. W. Allen, and G. L. Pearson, Impurities in II-VI and III-V Compound Semiconductors, Physical Review, vol.160, issue.3, p.627, 1967.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.160.627

H. A. Weakliem, in Tetrahedral Sites in Crystals, Optical Spectra of Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , and Cu 2+ in Tetrahedral Sites in Crystals, pp.2117-2140, 1962.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1732840

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, Infrared Absorption in Some II-VI Compounds Doped with Cr, Physical Review B, vol.2, issue.11, p.4313, 1970.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.2.4313

J. M. Kaminska, S. M. Uba, and J. T. Vallin, ) in II-VI compounds, Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, vol.12, issue.11, p.2197, 1979.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3719/12/11/029

R. H. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol.32, issue.6, p.885, 1996.
DOI : 10.1109/3.502365

W. F. Krupke, K. Chen, and A. Burger, Cr 2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol.33, issue.4, p.609, 1997.

J. Mckay, K. L. Schepler, and G. C. , Efficient grating-tuned mid-infrared Cr^2+:CdSe laser, Optics Letters, vol.24, issue.22, pp.1575-1577, 1999.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.24.001575

M. Luo, B. L. Vanmil, R. P. Tompkins, T. H. Myers, and N. C. Giles, Photoluminescence of ZnTe and ZnTe:Cr grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.97, issue.1, pp.13518-13526, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1827921

M. Luo, N. C. Giles, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, Energy transfer between Co2+ and Fe2+ ions in diffusion-doped ZnSe, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.98, issue.8, pp.83507-83513, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.2102069

J. T. Seo, U. Hömmerich, S. B. Trivedi, R. J. Chen, and S. Kutcher, Slope efficiency and tunability of a Cr 2+ : Cd 0.85 Mn 0.15 Te mid-infrared laser, Optics Communications, vol.153, pp.4-6, 1998.

J. J. Adams, C. Bibeau, R. H. Page, D. M. Krol, L. H. Furu et al., 40???45-??m lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material, Optics Letters, vol.24, issue.23, pp.1720-1722, 1999.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.24.001720

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, µm gain-switchedlasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature, Opt. Express, vol.38, issue.13, pp.9-13, 2005.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. P. Mikhailov, V. I. Levchenko et al., ZnSe and Co 2+ :ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-µm Er:glass lasers, Opt. Lett, vol.24, pp.14-960, 1999.

S. C. Singh, Solar photovoltaics: fundamentals, technologies and applications, Phi Learning, 2009.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF 3, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.90, issue.7, pp.3443-3457, 1989.
DOI : 10.2172/6995771

X. Luo and W. Cao, Ethanol-assistant solution combustion method to prepare La 2 O 2 S:Yb,Pr nanometer phosphor, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol.460, pp.1-2, 2008.

X. Luo, W. Cao, and M. Xing, Preparation of Nano Y2O2S:Eu Phosphor by Ethanol Assisted Combustion Synthesis Method, Journal of Rare Earths, vol.24, issue.1, pp.20-24, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1002-0721(06)60058-6

B. Morosin and D. J. Newman, La2O2S structure refinement and crystal field, Acta Crystallographica Section B Structural Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, vol.29, issue.11, pp.2647-2648, 1973.
DOI : 10.1107/S0567740873007284

W. H. Zachariasen, Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. VII. The crystal structure of Ce2O2S, La2O2S and Pu2O2S, Acta Crystallographica, vol.2, issue.1, pp.60-62, 1949.
DOI : 10.1107/S0365110X49000138

L. Aarts, S. Jaeqx, B. M. Van-der-ende, and A. Meijerink, Downconversion for the Er3+, Yb3+ couple in KPb2Cl5???A low-phonon frequency host, Journal of Luminescence, vol.131, issue.4, pp.608-613
DOI : 10.1016/j.jlumin.2010.10.041

H. Y. Lakshminarayanaa, S. Yea, Y. Liua, and J. Qiu, Cooperative downconversion luminescence in Pr3+/Yb3+:SiO2???Al2O3???BaF2???GdF3 glasses, Journal of Materials Research, vol.104, issue.11, p.3090, 2008.
DOI : 10.1049/el:19910721

Y. W. Zhaofeng-wanga, Y. Lia, and H. Zhang, Near-infrared quantum cutting in Tb 3+ , Yb 3+ co-doped calcium tungstate via second-order downconversion, Journal of Materials Research, vol.26, issue.5, pp.693-696, 2011.

H. Y. Lakshminarayana, S. Ye, Y. Liu, and J. Qiu, Co-operative downconversion luminescence in Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ : SiO 2 ?Al 2 O 3 ?LiF?GdF 3 glasses, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol.41, pp.17-175111, 2008.

J. Bernard and K. Miroslav, Etude des métaux par microscopie électronique en transmission (MET) -Microscopie, échantillons et diffractions, 2008.

J. Chatelet, Systèmes optroniques semi-actifs -Application du laser à la granulométrie, 1996.

O. Johnsen, L'encyclopédie des minéraux, Edition française, Delachaux et Niestlé, p.101, 2002.

P. Pascal, Zinc -Cadmium -Mercure, p.219, 1962.

E. Parthé, Cristallochimie des structures tétraédriques, Gordon & Breach, 1972.

B. Frere, Rapport de cristallographie : Etude de structures cristallines à l'aide du logiciel crystalmaker, 2004.

D. C. Harris, Materials for infrared windows and domes, spie press, 1999.

H. H. Li, Refractive Index of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe and Its Wavelength and Temperature Derivatives, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol.13, issue.1, pp.103-150, 1984.
DOI : 10.1063/1.555705

M. A. Herzberger and C. D. Salzberg, Refractive Indices of Infrared Optical Materials and Color Correction of Infrared Lenses*, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol.52, issue.4, pp.420-424, 1962.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSA.52.000420

C. A. Klein, Room-temperature dispersion equations for cubic zinc sulfide, Applied Optics, vol.25, issue.12, pp.1873-1875, 1986.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.25.001873

M. Debenham, Refractive indices of zinc sulfide in the 0405???13-??m wavelength range, Applied Optics, vol.23, issue.14, pp.2238-2239, 1984.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.23.002238

D. C. Harris, Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes, Properties and Performance, 1999.
DOI : 10.1117/3.349896

G. F. Goates, Calculated Values for the Solubility Product Constants of the Metallic Sulfides, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.74, issue.3, p.835, 1952.
DOI : 10.1021/ja01123a510

. Verhoogen, Thermodynamical calculation of the solubility of some important sulphides, up to 400 degrees C, Economic Geology, vol.33, issue.7, p.775, 1938.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.33.7.775

M. E. Wöhler, ??ber die Bildung von schwefel bei der Einwirkung von Schwefeldioxyd auf Calciumsulfid, Zinksulfid und die Eisensulfide, Zeitschrift f??r anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, vol.44, issue.1, p.273, 1923.
DOI : 10.1002/zaac.19231270122

T. Sidot, Recherches sur la cristallisation de quelques sulfures métalliques, p.999, 1866.

L. P. Wang and G. Y. Hong, A new preparation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles by solid-state method at low temperature, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.35, issue.5, pp.695-701, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0025-5408(00)00261-0

Z. Shizen, M. Hongli, J. Rocherullé, O. Merdrignac-conanec, J. Adam et al., Preparation and hot pressing of ZnS nano powders for producing transparent ceramics, Optoelectronics and advanced materials -Rapid communications, pp.12-667, 2007.

A. Celikkaya and M. Akinc, Morphology of Zinc Sulfide Particles Produced from Various Zinc Salts by Homogeneous Precipitation, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.45, issue.4, pp.245-250, 1990.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1990.tb06501.x

A. Eshuis, G. R. Van-elderen, and C. A. Koning, A descriptive model for the homogeneous precipitation of zinc sulfide from acidic zinc salt solutions, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol.151, issue.3, pp.505-512, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00835-8

E. T. Allen and J. L. Crenshaw, Effect of temperature and acidity in the formation of marcasite (FeS 2 ) and wurtzite (ZnS); a contribution to the genesis of unstable forms, American Journal of Science, vol.4, issue.227, pp.4-38, 1914.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.s4-38.227.393

A. S. Vishwakarma, Synthesis and Optical Properties of Bulk and Doped Zinc Sulfide Nanocrystals, International Journal of nanotechnology and Applications, vol.3, issue.2, pp.77-81, 2009.

M. K. Mekki-berrada, F. Gruy, and M. Cournil, Synthesis of zinc sulfide multi-scale agglomerates by homogeneous precipitation???parametric study and mechanism, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.311, issue.8, pp.2459-2465, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.138

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00411031

D. M. Wilhelmy and E. Matijevic, Preparation and properties of monodispersed sphericalcolloidal particles of zinc sulphide, Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, vol.1, issue.80 3, pp.563-570, 1984.

D. F. Bowersox, D. M. Smith, and E. H. Swift, The precipitation of zinc sulphide from acid solutions by thioacetamide, Talanta, vol.3, issue.3, pp.282-295, 1960.
DOI : 10.1016/0039-9140(60)80031-8

R. Williams, P. N. Yocom, and F. S. Stofko, Preparation and properties of spherical zinc sulfide particles, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol.106, issue.2, pp.388-398, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/S0021-9797(85)80013-8

T. H. Muster, G. Toikka, R. A. Hayes, C. A. Prestidge, and J. Ralston, Interactions between zinc sulphide particles under flotation-related conditions, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, pp.2-3, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0927-7757(95)03388-2

R. Vacassy, S. M. Scholz, J. Dutta, C. J. Plummer, R. Houriet et al., Synthesis of Controlled Spherical Zinc Sulfide Particles by Precipitation from Homogeneous Solutions, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.93, issue.15, pp.10-2699, 1998.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02679.x

Y. Li, X. He, and M. Cao, Micro-emulsion-assisted synthesis of ZnS nanospheres and their photocatalytic activity, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.43, issue.11, pp.3100-3110, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.materresbull.2007.11.016

C. Jiang, W. Zhang, G. Zou, W. Yu, and Y. Qian, Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of ZnS microspheres and hollow nanospheres, Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol.103, issue.1, pp.24-27, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2006.11.001

V. Stanic, T. H. Etsell, A. C. Pierre, and R. J. Mikula, Sol-gel processing of ZnS, Materials Letters, vol.31, issue.1-2, pp.1-2, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-577X(96)00237-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00006689

I. W. Lenggoro, K. Okuyama, and J. , PREPARATION OF ZnS NANOPARTICLES BY ELECTROSPRAY PYROLYSIS, Journal of Aerosol Science, vol.31, issue.1, pp.121-136, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0021-8502(99)00534-0

J. C. Sánchez-lópez and A. Fernández, The gas-phase condensation method for the preparation of quantum-sized ZnS nanoparticles, Thin Solid Films, pp.1-2, 1998.

J. P. Jolivet, De la solution à l'oxyde, condenstaion des cations en solution aqueuse, p.51, 1994.

V. K. Lamer and R. H. Dinegar, Theory, Production and Mechanism of Formation of Monodispersed Hydrosols, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.72, issue.11, pp.4847-4854, 1950.
DOI : 10.1021/ja01167a001

M. K. Berrada, Synthèse d'agglomérats multi-échelles de sulfure de zinc par précipitation homogène, Thèse de l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2007.

H. Hofmann, Particle Synthesis in Condensed Phases, Eastern Michigan University -USA, ACS PRF Summer School on Nanoparticle Materials, 2004.

Y. D. Kim, K. Sonezaki, H. Maeda, and A. Kato, Sintering behaviour of monodispersed ZnS powders, Journal of Materials Science, vol.32, issue.19, pp.5101-5106, 1997.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1018613316157

E. A. Butler, D. G. Peters, and E. H. Swift, Hydrolysis Reactions of Thioacetamide in Aqueous Solutions, Analytical Chemistry, vol.30, issue.8, pp.1379-1383, 1958.
DOI : 10.1021/ac60140a027

O. M. Peeters and C. J. De-ranter, Pathways in thioacetamide hydrolysis in aqueous acid: detection by kinetic analysis, Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2, vol.2, issue.15, pp.1832-1835, 1974.
DOI : 10.1039/p29740001832

G. Chiu, The preparation of monodisperse zinc sulfide sols, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol.83, issue.1, pp.309-310, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9797(81)90038-2

S. Zhu, H. L. Ma, J. Rocherullé, O. Merdrignac-conanec, J. L. Adam et al., Preparation and hot pressing of ZnS nano powders for producing transparent ceramics, Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol.1, pp.12-667, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00402221

T. Sugimoto, S. Chen, and A. Muramatsu, Synthesis of uniform particles of CdS, ZnS, PbS and CuS from concentrated solutions of the metal chelates, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol.135, issue.1-3, pp.1-3, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00245-8

T. Nomura, Y. Kousaka, M. Alonso, and M. Fukunaga, Precipitation of Zinc Sulfide Particles from Homogeneous Solutions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol.223, issue.2, pp.179-184, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/jcis.1999.6444

P. Aubry, A. Bensalah, P. Gredin, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien et al., Synthesis and optical characterizations of Yb-doped CaF2 ceramics, Optical Materials, vol.31, issue.5, pp.750-753, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.optmat.2008.03.022

A. Kajbafvala, S. Zanganeh, E. Kajbafvala, H. R. Zargar, M. R. Bayati et al., Microwave-assisted synthesis of narcis-like zinc oxide nanostructures, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol.497, issue.1-2, pp.1-2
DOI : 10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.03.057

R. Kugel and H. Taube, Infrared spectrum and structure of matrix-isolated sulfur tetroxide, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.79, issue.20, pp.2130-2135, 1975.
DOI : 10.1021/j100587a014

S. Anas, R. V. Mangalaraja, and S. Ananthakumar, Studies on the evolution of ZnO morphologies in a thermohydrolysis technique and evaluation of their functional properties, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.175, issue.1-3, pp.1-3
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.093

P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, Chemical processing of rare earth chalcogenides, Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, pp.321-383, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-8974(91)90021-4

J. Flahaut, K. A. Gschneidner, and J. A. Eyring, Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, pp.1-88, 1979.

J. Flahaut, M. Guittard, M. Patrie, M. P. Pardo, S. M. Golabi et al., de calcium, strontium et baryum. Formation et propri??t??s cristallines, Acta Crystallographica, vol.19, issue.1, pp.14-14, 1965.
DOI : 10.1107/S0365110X65002694

M. Guittard and J. Flahaut, La s??rie compl??te des oxys??l??niures des terres rares et d'yttrium, Acta Crystallographica, vol.21, issue.5, p.832, 1966.
DOI : 10.1107/S0365110X66003967

J. Flahaut and P. Laruelle, Chimie cristalline des sulfures, séléniures et tellurures binaires des éléments des terres rares, Progress in Sciences and Technology of the Rare earths, pp.151-208, 1968.

A. W. Sleight and C. T. Prewitt, Crystal chemistry of the rare earth sesquisulfides, Inorganic Chemistry, vol.7, issue.11, pp.2282-2288, 1968.
DOI : 10.1021/ic50069a022

P. Besançon and P. Laruelle, Comptes rendus de l'académie des sciences de paris, série chimie, p.48, 1969.

W. Klemm, K. Meisel, and H. U. Vogel, Über die Sulfide der seltenen Erden, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, pp.123-144, 1930.

J. Flahaut and M. Guittard, Comptes rendus de l'académie des sciences de paris, pp.1419-1422, 1956.

P. Besançon, Comptes rendus de l'académie des sciences de paris, pp.1130-1132, 1968.

D. Carré, P. Laruelle, and P. Besançon, Comptes rendus de l'académie des sciences de paris, pp.537-539, 1970.

W. Zachariasen, Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. VI. The Ce2S3???Ce3S4 type of structure, Acta Crystallographica, vol.2, issue.1, pp.57-60, 1949.
DOI : 10.1107/S0365110X49000126

F. Holtzberg, Y. Okaya, and N. Stemple, American crystallographic association meeting, 1965.

W. L. Cox, H. Steinfink, and W. F. Bradley, Type Structure, Inorganic Chemistry, vol.5, issue.2, pp.318-319, 1966.
DOI : 10.1021/ic50036a038

M. Atoji, at 300???5??K, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.54, issue.7, pp.3226-3227, 1971.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1675315

N. L. Eatough, A. W. Webb, and H. T. Hall, High-pressure Th3P4-type polymorphs of rare earth sesquichalcogenides, Inorganic Chemistry, vol.8, issue.10, pp.2069-2071, 1969.
DOI : 10.1021/ic50080a007

N. L. Eatough and H. T. Hall, High-pressure Th3P4-type polymorphs of rare earth sesquiselenides, Inorganic Chemistry, vol.9, issue.2, pp.417-418, 1970.
DOI : 10.1021/ic50084a061

P. J. Walker and R. C. Ward, The preparation of some ternary sulphides MR2S4 (M = Ca, Cd; R = La,Sm,Er) and the melt growth of CaLa2S4, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.19, issue.6, pp.717-725, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(84)90028-X

O. Schevciw and W. B. White, The optical absorption edge of rare earth sesquisulfides and alkaline earth - rare earth sulfides, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.18, issue.9, pp.1059-1068, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(83)90147-2

P. Besançon, Teneur en oxyg??ne et formule exacte d'une famille de compos??s habituellement appel??s ???vari??t?? ????? ou ???phase complexe??? des sulfures de terres rares, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol.7, issue.2, pp.232-240, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-4596(73)90159-X

J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, E. Loh, and J. B. Gruber, Electronic Structure of Rare-Earth Sesquisulfide Crystals, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.47, issue.9, pp.3347-3356, 1967.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1712397

P. L. Provenzano, S. I. Boldish, and W. B. White, Vibrational spectra of ternary sulfides with the Th3P4 structure, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.12, issue.9, pp.939-946, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(77)90106-4

W. B. White, D. Chess, C. A. Chess, and J. V. Biggers, <title>CaLa<formula><inf><roman>2</roman></inf></formula>S<formula><inf><roman>4</roman></inf></formula>: Ceramic Window Material For The 8 to 14 ??m Region</title>, Emerging Optical Materials, pp.38-43, 1981.
DOI : 10.1117/12.932482

D. L. Chess, C. A. Chess, and W. B. White, Precursor Powders for Sulfide Ceramics Prepared by Evaporative Decomposition of Solutions, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.5, issue.18, pp.205-206, 1983.
DOI : 10.1021/ie50457a020

D. L. Chess, C. A. Chess, J. V. Biggers, and W. B. White, Processing Ternary Sulfide Ceramics: Powder Preparation, Sintering, and Hot-Pressing, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.297, issue.1, pp.18-22, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-3203(72)90027-1

J. A. Beswick, D. J. Pedder, J. C. Lewis, and F. W. Ainger, New infra-red window materials, New optical materials, SPIE Proceedings, p.12, 1983.

K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, K. J. Marsh, and A. P. Jones, Recent developments in the fabrication of rare-earth chalcogenide materials for infrared optical applications, Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, pp.21-28, 1983.

D. L. Chess, C. A. Chess, and W. B. White, Physical properties of ternary sulfide ceramics, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.19, issue.12, pp.1551-1558, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(84)90230-7

M. E. Hills, Preparation, Properties, and Development of Calcium Lanthanum Sulfide as an 8-to 12-µm Transmitting Ceramic, Report from the Naval Weapons Center, 1989.

M. E. Hills, Preparations, properties and development of calcium lanthanum sulfide as an 8-to 12-micrometer transmitting ceramic, Naval weapons center, 1989.

L. H. Wang and M. H. Hon, Effects of Sulfidization and Sintering Temperatures of CaLa 2 S 4 Powder on Its Optical Property, The Japan Society of Applied Physics, pp.31-2177, 1992.

B. J. Tsay, L. H. Wang, and M. H. Hon, Formation and densification of CaLa2S4 powders by sulfidization of modified metal alkoxides in different atmospheres, Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol.72, issue.1, pp.31-35, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0921-5107(99)00515-2

Y. Han and M. Akinc, Preparation of Calcium Lanthanum Sulfide Powders via Alkoxide Sulfurization, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.36, issue.12, pp.2815-2819, 1991.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1991.tb06848.x

X. Luo and W. Cao, Ethanol-assistant solution combustion method to prepare La 2 O 2 S:Yb,Pr nanometer phosphor, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol.460, pp.1-2, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.06.011

D. L. Flahaut and M. Patrie, Combinaisons formées par les sulfures des éléments du groupe des terres rares. Etude cristallographique des phases ayant le type structural du phosphure de thorium Th 3 P 4 , Bulletin de la société chimique de france, pp.2048-2054, 1962.

B. J. Tsay and L. H. Wang, A study on infrared transmission of lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide in the 2.5-14 µm region, Materials Letters, vol.34, pp.3-6, 1998.

W. Zachariasen, Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. VII. The crystal structure of Ce2O2S, La2O2S and Pu2O2S, Acta Crystallographica, vol.2, issue.1, pp.60-62, 1949.
DOI : 10.1107/S0365110X49000138

B. Morosin, La2O2S structure refinement and crystal field, Acta Crystallographica Section B Structural Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, vol.29, issue.11, pp.2647-2648, 1973.
DOI : 10.1107/S0567740873007284

M. Machida, K. Kawamura, K. Ito, and K. Ikeue, Large-Capacity Oxygen Storage by Lanthanide Oxysulfate/Oxysulfide Systems, Chemistry of Materials, vol.17, issue.6, pp.1487-1492, 2005.
DOI : 10.1021/cm0479640

D. Bernache-assolant, ]. J. Haussone, C. Carry, P. Bowen, and J. Barton, Chimie-Physique du frittage, Forceram, formation céramique, Editions Hermès, Traité des matériaux 16, Céramiques et Verres, Principes et techniques d'élaboration, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, 1993.

S. Yangyun and R. J. Brook, Preparation of zirconia-toughned ceramics by reaction sintering, Sci. Sinter, vol.17, issue.1, pp.35-47, 1985.

F. L. Riley, Silicon Nitride and Related Materials, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.71, issue.10, pp.245-265, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.2000.tb01182.x

M. N. Rahaman, Ceramic Processing and Sintering, second edition, 2003.

K. Wright, G. W. Watson, S. C. Parker, and D. J. Vaughan, Simulation of the structure and stability of sphalerite (ZnS) surfaces, American Mineralogist, vol.83, issue.1-2, pp.1-2, 1998.
DOI : 10.2138/am-1998-1-214

D. W. Richardson, Modern Ceramic Engineering, 1992.

C. Estournes, Mise en forme de matériaux par frittage flash, 2006.

D. Bernache-assollant and J. Bonnet, Frittage en phase solide, Techniques de l, 2005.

S. Zhu, H. L. Ma, J. Rocherullé, O. Merdrignac-conanec, J. L. Adam et al., Preparation and hot pressing of ZnS nano powders for producing transparent ceramics, Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol.1, pp.12-667, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00402221

M. Sato, G. Adachi, and J. Shiokawa, Preparation and structure of sodium rare-earth sulfides, NaLnS2 (Ln; rare earth elements), Materials Research Bulletin, vol.19, issue.9, pp.1215-1220, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(84)90074-6

3. Yb, ?. Aldrich, and 0. Acs-reagent, Les produits de départ utilisés sont les suivants : thioacétamide (Sigma, nitrate de lanthane hexahydraté nitrate d'erbium pentahydraté (Aldrich, 99,9%, metal basis) ou nitrate de néodyme hydraté Les compositions étudiées sont reportées dans le Tableau V-2

P. B. Barton and B. J. Skinner, Sulfide mineral stabilities, In Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, pp.236-333, 1976.

S. D. Scott and H. L. Barnes, Sphalerite-wurtzite equilibria and stoichiometry, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.36, issue.11, pp.1275-95, 1972.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(72)90049-X

K. V. Shalimova and N. K. Morozova, Effect of excess zinc on the crystal structure of ZnS, Sov. Phys., Crystallogr, vol.9, pp.471-473, 1965.

K. Togari, Mineralogical studies on Japanese sphalerite, J. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Ser. Geol. Mineral, vol.4, issue.10, pp.703-736, 1961.

G. A. Slack, F. S. Ham, and R. M. Chrenko, Optical Absorption of, Cubic ZnS, CdTe, and MgAl 2 O 4, p.376, 1966.

D. Colignon, E. Kartheuser, S. Rodriguez, and M. Villeret, Optical and magnetic properties of Fe 2+ and Cr 2+ in II-VI semiconductors: the Jahn-Teller effect, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.159, pp.1-4, 1996.

F. S. Ham and G. A. Slack, in Cubic ZnS: Role of the Jahn-Teller Coupling, Physical Review B, vol.4, issue.3, p.777, 1971.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.4.777

G. A. Slack and B. M. , in ZnS, Physical Review, vol.163, issue.2, p.335, 1967.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.163.335

G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and F. S. Ham, in ZnS, Physical Review, vol.155, issue.2, p.170, 1967.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.155.170

S. Takeda and M. Obara, Random microresonators enable localized-mode tuning, SPIE Newsroom, 2009.
DOI : 10.1117/2.1200904.1605

L. Aarts, B. M. Van-der-ende, and A. Meijerink, Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4:Er,Yb, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.106, issue.2, pp.23522-23528, 2009.
DOI : 10.1063/1.3177257