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Développement d'un système magnétique d'assistance à la coaptation valvulaire cardiaque: étude de faisabilité

Abstract : Valvular heart diseases are important cardiac pathology and valvular heart insufficiency is one of them. The standard treatment is valve replacement with prosthetic valve. Lacks of ideal prosthetic valve and the drawbacks inherent in prosthetic material and anticoagulant therapy, encourage us to develop techniques of conservative surgery of thevalve. Today, repair of the aortic valve remains a surgical challenge, but mitral valve repair is frequently possible. However, the result and possibility of repair depends on the mechanism of insufficiency and the extension of the lesion of the mitral valve. For overcoming all these obstacles, we proposed the theory to study of the magnetic forces of permanent magnets as an adjuvant, or as exclusive treatment to restore effective valvecoaptation. To realize this idea, we based our research on three steps: 1 - Characterization of magnets required 2 - Feasibility study of the magnets in vitro and in vivo 3 - Verification of the effectiveness of the magnetic force to achieve the desired coaptation in valvular insufficiency This research is done in collaboration between the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular surgery of Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital in Paris and the research group Electrodynamics - GREM3 LAPLACE Laboratory in Toulouse. The magnets were fabricated by taking into account the following factors: lowprofile and permanency; biocompatibility; the conservation of magnetization in a blood medium; mechanical flexibility of the implanted elements; and the possibility of sterilization. One of the main concerns was to elaborate the adapted intensity of the magnetic force, such that it would be sufficiently strong to close the valve, yet be weak enough to allow valve opening during cardiac cycle. To assess the feasibility, before conducting experiments in animals, in vitro data were obtained and judged appropriate by using a circulating pig heart model with a paracorporeal pneumatic (Thoratec®) ventricular assist device. The phase of animal testing was carried out by the establishment of three permanent magnets on the aortic valve in seven sheep kept alive for 3 months and the results were satisfactory: - No iatrogenic prolepses, - Perfect bio-tolerance without the need for anticoagulation - No visible inflammatory reaction at autopsy on the third postoperative month Finally, to study the effectiveness of the magnetic force to achieve the desired coaptation in valvular insufficiency, three models of magnets have been tested on 4 sheep, but the results were not satisfactory. Currently we try to solve the problem and new magnets are by the way of conception. To our knowledge, the use of magnetic force to correct valvular incompetence has never been reported. Even if the experimental phase of magnets for treating valvular insufficiency has not reached its conclusion, we demonstrated the feasibility of the concept of healthy valve. This field of investigation must continue to be explored because the magnets have several advantages. On the one hand, they are technically easy to perform, and could thus allow a rapid repair. On the other hand, because of this simplicity, we could consider a percutaneous implantation, which will open a new way for conservative surgery in valvular insufficiency.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 20, 2012 - 3:16:00 PM
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Mojgan Laali. Développement d'un système magnétique d'assistance à la coaptation valvulaire cardiaque: étude de faisabilité. Energie électrique. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00689915⟩

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