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Les différentes natures de l'anticipation en tennis : de la quantification aux apprentissages perceptifs

Abstract : The aim of this work was to analyse anticipation in fast ball sport by using the support of tennis. For anticipation, two different sources of information can be used: on one hand, the opponents’ postural cues and on the other hand, tactical and contextual information.To achieve this work, we used the « expert performance approach » proposed by Ericsson and Smith (1991). To begin, we carried out an in situ analysis of expert tennis player anticipation (study 1). The results showed that experts anticipate when they are in an unfavorable situation and when the risk to lose the point is high. Moreover, two different temporal windows appeared: a very early temporal window in which the level of response accuracy is high and information used can be related to tactics; a later temporal window in which response accuracy is weaker and information can be related to the opponents’ postural cues.Secondly, we ran two experiments in order to analyse these two windows, using different types of information. In study 2, we worked on the availability of postural cues according to tactical information. We showed that experts contrary to novices could use postural cues information to improve anticipation accuracy. In the third study, we varied the amount of tactical information inside the point with different conditions presenting 1, 3 or 5 strokes before the occlusion. Results didn’t show any differences in prediction accuracy between different occlusion conditions. However, response time was shorter in the five strokes condition than in other conditions, revealing that the decision for anticipation was taken sooner in this condition.Finally, in a third step, we ran a learning protocol. The aim was to improve anticipation based on tactical and probabilistical knowledge of one particular opponent. The results showed an improved anticipation performance and a shorter response time for the specific learning group.The results, we obtained during this phD work, give quantitative data on expert anticipation in tennis. These results provide a basis to design representative tasks to explore with more details anticipation. Moreover, they suggest the possibility of using the different sources of information to anticipate. To conclude, it seems possible to improve anticipation skills, even for some expert players, by running training protocols. This work opens a lot of perspectives of research which can allow, for example, to formalize with more accuracy the nature of information used to anticipate.
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Celine Triolet. Les différentes natures de l'anticipation en tennis : de la quantification aux apprentissages perceptifs. Education. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA113004⟩. ⟨tel-00738998⟩

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