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Modélisation et évaluation de l’impact multi-échelles des mégapoles européennes

Abstract : The important increase in worldwide population identified during the last century led to a human migration toward urban areas. As a consequence, 50 high populated areas called megacities, reaching more than 7 millions of people, appeared in the last decades. This huge increase happened so fast that existing infrastructures (such as roads network, public transport) is not suitable anymore. Taking into account environmental issues (air quality, supply and waste management) in this context is then a real challenge. In the meantime, observations and numerical models highlight the need to deal with local pollution in megacities as well as climate policy, through the consideration of pollutants transfer from local scale to global scale. The increase of ozone background in Europe, which also is a climate issue, could depend of the increase of the megacities emissions in the north hemisphere, due to the economical development (Monks et al., 2009).What do we know of the megacities real impact on air quality? Scientific studies aiming to understand the key parameters of oxidizing pollution have mainly focus on the local and regional scales. Interactions between megacities and global scale have been the subject of many modelling studies (Wild et Akimoto, 2001; Stohl et al., 2002; Lawrence et al., 2003, 2007). However, there are still few works concerning interactions between megacities and their continental environment. My thesis works were then aiming at identifying theses impacts using eulerian modelling. My main interrogations concerned the nature, the magnitude, the scope, direct and indirect impact, and finally the pollutants exported by European megacities flux variations. In addition, I also investigated the nature of these high emission areas, through the sensitivity of the urban structure on their impacts (compact or spread cities). New tools developments in the model (flux calculation, new chemical scheme, implementation of an upgraded tool dedicated to scales interaction) were necessary to answer the problematic
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Guillaume Siour. Modélisation et évaluation de l’impact multi-échelles des mégapoles européennes. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1034⟩. ⟨tel-00804626⟩

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