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Étude des effets et du rôle des herbiers à Zostera noltii sur la biogéochimie des sédiments intertidaux

Abstract : The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the influence of the Zostera noltii meadows of the Arcachon Bay, a seagrass meadow affected by a severe regression since the 2000’s, on the biogeochemical dynamic of the intertidal sediment of this lagoon. In such a changing coastal environment, it was important to characterize this influence on a wide range of spatial (i.e. from roots to the ecosystem) and temporal scales(i.e. tidal, diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual). In situ voltammetric measurements of the composition of porewater in an intertidal unvegetated sediment showed that (i) the vertical distribution of reduced species varied with tides and (ii) the oxygen dynamic in response to tidal and diurnal cycles was controlled by the photosynthetic activity and vertical migrations of microphytobenthos.The study of the influence of seagrasses on this dynamic by radial oxygen loss around roots was initiated with measurements of oxygen concentrations inside the lacunae of these plants. The organization of the lacunae of Zostera noltii is presented for the first time inthis study. The vertical distribution of porewater nutrients in vegetated and unvegetated sediments was characterized during the growth period of seagrasses. The presence of Zostera noltii induced a strong vertical zonation related to the depth-evolution of the balance between nutrient production stimulated by the root exudation of labile organic matter (source) and the root uptake of nutrients (sink). This study revealed the occurence of a root uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved silica. Measurements of benthic oxygen exchanges on sediments colonized or not by Zostera noltii enabled the characterization of the seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of benthic metabolism (respiration and gross primary production) related to macrofaunal and macrophytic distribution. In vegetated sediments, the spatio-temporal variability of this benthic metabolism was highly controlled by leaves biomass. At the lagoon scale, our calculations showed that the regression of Zostera noltii meadows induced a significant decresase of mean annual respiration and production rates of the intertidal area of the lagoon.The inter annual evolution of the biogeochemistry of sediments colonized by Zostera noltii was studied in 2006 and in 2010/2011 in an area of the Arcachon Bay highly affected by the seagrass decline. In contrast to the healthy meadow in 2006, the declining meadow has increased nutrient release in sediments stimulating the production of ammonium or the dissolution of particulate phosphorus. This study shows that seagrass decay may result in a significant supply of phosphorus to the water column of a magnitude comparable to annual inputs to the lagoon from the rivers and the tidal pump.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 24, 2013 - 1:06:41 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 28, 2022 - 4:20:10 PM
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Marie Lise Delgard. Étude des effets et du rôle des herbiers à Zostera noltii sur la biogéochimie des sédiments intertidaux. Biologie végétale. Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BOR14780⟩. ⟨tel-00847777⟩

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