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Centre, périphérie, conflit et formation de l'État depuis Ménélik II : les crises de et dans l'État éthiopien

Abstract : This work deals with contemporary Ethiopian armed conflicts (nature and forms) out of areflexion on the state trajectory. The Ethiopian state is to be studied in the continuity ofthe empire built by Menelik II at the end of the XIXth century, whose borders haveremained almost unchanged since then (except the Eritrean independence in 1993). Theparticular perception of the Ethiopian political space studied in terms of "centre" and"periphery" is also embedded in this imperial period. A perception which remainscharacteristic of Ethiopian studies, considering the Ethiopian armed conflicts as opposinga "centre" (considered synonymous with "modern state") to its "peripheries" inheritedfrom the imperial conquests (seen as "traditional societies"). The thesis is thus built outof these three following themes which represent the core of the reflexion: the Ethiopianempire- and state formation, armed conflicts, and the centre-periphery relation. In fact,the centre-periphery relation has been determinant in the theories dealing with empiresandstate-formation. Here, I aim at redefining the relationship between state-formationand the centre-periphery theories by using the notions of "central political sector" and"peripheral political sector" (Coulon 1972). The State shall then be considered as ahistorical process produced by the formation (formal, symbolical, and cognitive) of thesesectors. The sectors are dependent of each other and their characteristics derive fromconstant economic, social and political reconfigurations. They shall be considered in asame whole which produces the Ethiopian state and its identity, its nation.The thesis analyses the relationship between the formation of these two political sectorsand armed conflicts in order to rethink the dominant view considering conflicts as acentre conflicting against its peripheries. Illustrated by the study of three regions (whichhave been experiencing armed conflicts since the imperial period, i.e. Eritrea, Gambellaand Afar), and focusing on their constant and changing relations (formal or perceived)with the Ethiopian state, this work confirms the existence of three main conflict trends(interdependent and sometimes cumulative): the conflict between the two sectors, theconflict within the central sector, and the conflict within the peripheral sector. Finally, Iargue that the current Ethiopian conflicts derive from a dual state crisis: a crisis "of" theEthiopian state (the radical refusal of the state), and a crisis "within" the Ethiopian state(refusal of the regime or the government, but not the State itself). This dual crisisinherited from the imperial period took form during the second reign of Haile Selassie(1941-1974). The roots of contemporary armed conflicts in Ethiopia have to be situated insuch a crisis, and their continuation in its resilience.
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https://theses.hal.science/tel-00878699
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 30, 2013 - 4:11:42 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 10:33:56 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, January 31, 2014 - 9:35:46 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00878699, version 1

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Jean-Nicolas Bach. Centre, périphérie, conflit et formation de l'État depuis Ménélik II : les crises de et dans l'État éthiopien. Science politique. Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00878699⟩

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