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Développement d’une forme orale du fondaparinux

Abstract : Since its introduction in the market in 2002, fondaparinux (Arixtra®) is a drug of choice in the anticoagulant therapy. Its structure corresponds to the heparin pentasaccharide sequence that mediates its interaction with the natural plasma inhibitor of coagulation, antithrombin. However, like heparin, its application is limited due its unique administration by parenteral route. The aim of this project is to develop an efficient oral delivery system for fondaparinux by association with a squalene derivative. Squalene, a natural precursor of cholesterol in sterol biosynthesis, is well-known for its excellent oral absorption (i.e. more than 60 %). In this context, two strategies were investigated. The first consisted in achieving a covalent coupling between fondaparinux and a squalene derivative according to the concept of “squalenoylation”. The second was to associate fondaparinux to a cationic squalenoyl derivative by non-covalent association.Experimental work showed that the first strategy was delicate to implement due to the difficulty to synthesize a fondaparinux-squalene bioconjugate and, the loss of the anticoagulant properties of fondaparinux. Because of these obstacles, the concept of "squalenoylation" was not suitable for this type of active molecule. In contrast, the second strategy has been very promising. It consisted in the formulation of a nanoparticulate delivery system by ion-pairing of fondaparinux and a cationic squalenoyl derivative. This approach permitted to highlight the self-assembly of these two compounds in water as monodisperse nanoparticles thanks to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, the oral absorption of fondaparinux was significantly increased with this new nanoparticulate system. This new squalene-based approach has shown its effectiveness in improving the oral administration of fondaparinux and could be a potential delivery system in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases.
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Bettina Ralay-Ranaivo. Développement d’une forme orale du fondaparinux. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA114858⟩. ⟨tel-00922986⟩

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