C. Beaurepaire, Psychopathologie et détention : données et réflexions cliniques, 1997.

A. Abbott, Psychiatric genetics: The brains of the family, Nature, vol.454, issue.7201, pp.154-161, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.162

M. Adamina and U. Guller, Propensity scores and the surgeon, British Journal of Surgery, vol.158, issue.4, pp.389-94, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/bjs.5265

D. Addington and J. Addington, A psychometric comparison of the Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia and the Hamilton depression rating scale, Schizophrenia Research, vol.19, issue.2-3, pp.205-217, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0920-9964(95)00070-4

D. Addington and J. Addington, Assessing depression in schizophrenia: the Calgary Depression Scale, Br J Psychiatry, issue.22, pp.39-44, 1993.

D. Addington and J. Addington, Specificity of the Calgary Depression Scale for schizophrenics, Schizophrenia Research, vol.11, issue.3, pp.239-283, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0920-9964(94)90017-5

D. Addington and J. Addington, Reliability and validity of a depression rating scale for schizophrenics, Schizophrenia Research, vol.6, issue.3, pp.201-209, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0920-9964(92)90003-N

D. Addington and J. Addington, A depression rating scale for schizophrenics, Schizophrenia Research, vol.3, issue.4, pp.247-51, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0920-9964(90)90005-R

S. Al-chaabani and M. Bataille, [Prison psychosis and dissociative disorders], Rev Med Liege, vol.57, issue.12, pp.793-801, 2002.

A. Aleman and R. S. Kahn, Sex Differences in the Risk of Schizophrenia, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.60, issue.6, pp.565-71, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.60.6.565

N. B. Almandil and Y. Liu, Weight Gain and Other Metabolic Adverse Effects Associated with Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Pediatric Drugs, vol.25, issue.5, pp.139-50, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s40272-013-0016-6

J. Arboleda-florez and H. Holley, Understanding causal paths between mental illness and violence, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol.33, issue.13, pp.38-46, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s001270050208

S. Arieti, Interpretation of schizophrenia, 1974.

S. M. Assadi and M. Noroozian, Psychiatric morbidity among sentenced prisoners: prevalence study in Iran, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.188, issue.2, pp.159-64, 2006.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.188.2.159

P. Auquier and C. Lancon, Mortality in schizophrenia, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol.3, issue.12, pp.1308-1320, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/pds.1496

P. C. Austin, The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios, Statistics in Medicine, vol.24, issue.16, pp.3078-94, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.2781

P. C. Austin, The Relative Ability of Different Propensity Score Methods to Balance Measured Covariates Between Treated and Untreated Subjects in Observational Studies, Medical Decision Making, vol.29, issue.6, 2009.
DOI : 10.1177/0272989X09341755

P. C. Austin and P. Grootendorst, Conditioning on the propensity score can result in biased estimation of common measures of treatment effect: a Monte Carlo study, Statistics in Medicine, vol.137, issue.4, pp.754-68, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.2618

Y. P. Balhara and R. Verma, Schizophrenia and suicide, East Asian Arch Psychiatry, vol.22, issue.3, pp.126-159, 2012.

T. R. Barnes, A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.154, issue.5, pp.672-678, 1989.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.154.5.672

O. Baser, Too Much Ado about Propensity Score Models? Comparing Methods of Propensity Score Matching, Value in Health, vol.9, issue.6, pp.377-85, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2006.00130.x

F. J. Bayle and O. Blanc, Prise en charge m??dicamenteuse de l???anxi??t?? chez le patient souffrant de schizophr??nie, L'Enc??phale, vol.37, issue.1, pp.83-92, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.encep.2010.08.009

P. E. Bebbington and M. Angermeyer, The European Schizophrenia Cohort, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol.47, issue.Suppl 410, pp.707-724, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00127-005-0955-5

R. Bender and S. Lange, Adjusting for multiple testing???when and how?, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol.54, issue.4, pp.343-352, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00314-0

M. E. Benros and P. B. Mortensen, Autoimmune diseases and infections as risk factors for schizophrenia, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.35, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.56-66, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06638.x

M. E. Benros and P. R. Nielsen, Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Schizophrenia: A 30-Year Population-Based Register Study, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.168, issue.12, pp.1303-1313, 2012.
DOI : 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11030516

E. Bleuler, Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias Bouyer, J, 1950.

R. J. Braga and G. P. Reynolds, Anxiety comorbidity in schizophrenia, Psychiatry Research, vol.210, issue.1, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.030

P. Brennan and A. Silman, Statistical methods for assessing observer variability in clinical measures., BMJ, vol.304, issue.6840, pp.1491-1495, 1992.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.304.6840.1491

G. Browne and M. Courtney, Schizophrenia housing and supportive relationships, International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, vol.45, issue.2, pp.73-80, 2007.
DOI : 10.2307/2676306

T. Brugha and N. Singleton, Psychosis in the Community and in Prisons: A Report From the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.162, issue.4, pp.774-80, 2005.
DOI : 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.4.774

F. Casadebaig and A. Philippe, [Mortality in schizophrenic patients. 3 years follow-up of a cohort], Encephale, vol.25, issue.4, pp.329-366, 1999.

F. Casadebaig and A. Philippe, Schizophrenic patients: physical health and access to somatic care, European Psychiatry, vol.12, issue.6, pp.289-93, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0924-9338(97)84788-8

M. S. Cepeda and R. Boston, Comparison of Logistic Regression versus Propensity Score When the Number of Events Is Low and There Are Multiple Confounders, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.158, issue.3, pp.280-287, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwg115

D. V. Cicchetti and S. A. Sparrow, Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items: applications to assessment of adaptive behavior, Am J Ment Defic, vol.86, issue.2, pp.127-164, 1981.

. Cochran, The Planning of Observational Studies of Human Populations, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General), vol.128, issue.2, pp.234-255, 1965.
DOI : 10.2307/2344179

E. F. Cook and L. Goldman, ASYMMETRIC STRATIFICATION, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.127, issue.3, pp.626-665, 1988.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114838

E. F. Cook and L. Goldman, Performance of tests of significance based on stratification by a multivariate confounder score or by a propensity score, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol.42, issue.4, pp.317-341, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0895-4356(89)90036-X

J. Cornfield and W. Haenszel, Smoking and lung cancer: recent evidence and a discussion of some questions, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.38, issue.5, pp.173-203, 1959.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/dyp289

C. U. Correll and A. M. Frederickson, Does antipsychotic polypharmacy increase the risk for metabolic syndrome?, Schizophrenia Research, vol.89, issue.1-3, pp.1-3, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.schres.2006.08.017

C. U. Correll and A. K. Malhotra, Early Prediction of Antipsychotic Response in Schizophrenia, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.160, issue.11, pp.2063-2068, 2003.
DOI : 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.11.2063

C. U. Correll and C. Rummel-kluge, Antipsychotic Combinations vs Monotherapy in Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.35, issue.2, pp.443-57, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/schbul/sbn018

D. Agostino and R. B. Jr, Propensity score methods for bias reduction in the comparison of a treatment to a non-randomized control group, Statistics in Medicine, vol.17, issue.19, pp.2265-81, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19981015)17:19<2265::AID-SIM918>3.0.CO;2-B

B. M. Dausch and D. J. Miklowitz, Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF): II. Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Families of Bipolar Patients, Family Process, vol.129, issue.2, pp.175-89, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1545-5300.1989.00169.x

J. De-leon, Beyond the "Hype" on the Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Atypical Antipsychotics, Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol.28, issue.2, pp.125-156, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/JCP.0b013e318166f533

E. Dempster and J. Viana, Epigenetic Studies of Schizophrenia: Progress, Predicaments, and Promises for the Future, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.39, issue.1, pp.11-17, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/schbul/sbs139

D. M. Eddy and V. Hasselblad, Meta-analysis by the confidence profile method, 1992.

L. A. Ehrenberg-alain, Maladie mentale en mutation (La), 2001.

R. Emsley and B. Chiliza, The nature of relapse in schizophrenia, BMC Psychiatry, vol.63, issue.8, p.50, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.08.018

S. Englisch and M. Zink, Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia: Evidence-based Strategies, Mens Sana Monogr, vol.10, issue.1, pp.20-32, 2012.

B. Falissard, Mesurer la subjectivité en santé : Perspective méthodologique et statistique. 2eme édition, 2008.

B. Falissard and J. Y. Loze, Prevalence of mental disorders in French prisons for men, BMC Psychiatry, vol.162, issue.20, p.33, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amp.2004.07.002

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00097911

S. Fazel and J. Danesh, Serious mental disorder in 23???000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys, The Lancet, vol.359, issue.9306, pp.545-50, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07740-1

S. Fazel and M. Grann, The Population Impact of Severe Mental Illness on Violent Crime, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.163, issue.8, pp.1397-403, 2006.
DOI : 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.8.1397

S. Fazel and M. Grann, Risk Factors for Violent Crime in Schizophrenia, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol.70, issue.3, pp.362-371, 2009.
DOI : 10.4088/JCP.08m04274

S. Fazel and G. Gulati, Schizophrenia and Violence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, PLoS Medicine, vol.360, issue.8, p.1000120, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120.s001

S. Fazel and N. Langstrom, Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime, JAMA, vol.301, issue.19, pp.2016-2039, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2009.675

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905518

R. Ferretjans and F. A. Moreira, The Endocannabinoid System and its Role in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review of the Literature, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, vol.34, issue.2, pp.163-77, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rbp.2012.07.003

B. A. Fischer, A Review of American Psychiatry Through Its Diagnoses, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol.200, issue.12, pp.1022-1052, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318275cf19

J. Fitzsimmons and M. Kubicki, Review of functional and anatomical brain connectivity findings in schizophrenia, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol.26, issue.2, pp.172-87, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835d9e6a

P. Frottier and S. Fruhwald, Jailhouse Blues revisited, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol.37, issue.2, pp.68-73, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s127-002-8217-7

M. Gail and S. Wieand, Biased estimates of treatment effect in randomized experiments with nonlinear regressions and omitted covariates, Biometrika, vol.71, issue.3, pp.431-475, 1984.
DOI : 10.1093/biomet/71.3.431

R. Gaillard and A. Ouanas, [Benzodiazepines and schizophrenia, a review of the literature], Encephale, vol.326, pp.1003-1013, 2006.

J. Garrabé, Histoire de la Schizophrénie, 1992.

P. V. Gejman and A. R. Sanders, The Role of Genetics in the Etiology of Schizophrenia, Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol.33, issue.1, pp.35-66, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.psc.2009.12.003

P. V. Gejman and A. R. Sanders, Genetics of Schizophrenia: New Findings and Challenges, Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, vol.12, issue.1, pp.121-165, 2011.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-genom-082410-101459

T. P. Gilmer and C. R. Dolder, Antipsychotic Polypharmacy Trends Among Medi-Cal Beneficiaries With Schizophrenia in San Diego County, 1999???2004, Psychiatric Services, vol.58, issue.7, pp.1007-1017, 1999.
DOI : 10.1176/ps.2007.58.7.1007

H. H. Goldman and A. E. Skodol, Revising axis V for DSM-IV: a review of measures of social functioning, Am J Psychiatry, vol.149, issue.9, pp.1148-56, 1992.

E. M. Goldner and L. Hsu, Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: a systematic review of the literature, Can J Psychiatry, vol.47, issue.9, pp.833-876, 2002.

F. Gonon, La psychiatrie biologique : une bulle spéculative ?, 2011.
DOI : 10.3917/espri.1111.0054

URL : http://www.cairn.info/load_pdf.php?ID_ARTICLE=ESPRI_1111_0054

S. Greenland, An introduction to instrumental variables for epidemiologists, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.29, issue.4, pp.722-731, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/29.4.722

S. Greenland, Principles of multilevel modelling, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.158-67, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/29.1.158

S. Greenland, Multiple-bias modelling for analysis of observational data (with discussion), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), vol.157, issue.2, pp.267-306, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0091-7435(91)90006-P

S. Greenland and B. Brumback, An overview of relations among causal modelling methods, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.31, issue.5, pp.1030-1037, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/31.5.1030

R. H. Groenwold and O. H. Klungel, Selection of confounding variables should not be based on observed associations with exposure, European Journal of Epidemiology, vol.59, issue.8
DOI : 10.1007/s10654-011-9606-1

W. Guy, Clinical Global Impression. ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology revised (DHEW Publ No ADM 76-338), National Institute of Mental Health, pp.218-222, 1976.

J. A. Hanley and B. J. Mcneil, The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve., Radiology, vol.143, issue.1, pp.29-36, 1982.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.143.1.7063747

S. Hautecouverture and F. Limosin, [Epidemiology of schizophrenic disorders], Presse Med, vol.353, issue.2, pp.461-469, 2006.

H. C. Hendrie and W. Tu, Health Outcomes and Cost of Care Among Older Adults with Schizophrenia: A 10-Year Study Using Medical Records Across the Continuum of Care, The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol.22, issue.5, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jagp.2012.10.025

H. Hida and A. Mouri, Behavioral Phenotypes in Schizophrenic Animal Models With Multiple Combinations of Genetic and Environmental Factors, Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol.121, issue.3, pp.185-91, 2013.
DOI : 10.1254/jphs.12R15CP

J. Hill and J. P. Reiter, Interval estimation for treatment effects using propensity score matching, Statistics in Medicine, vol.25, issue.13, pp.2230-56, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.2277

J. Hochmann, Histoire de la psychiatrie, 2e édition, 2011.

S. Iritani, What happens in the brain of schizophrenia patients?: an investigation from the viewpoint of neuropathology, Nagoya J Med Sci, vol.75, issue.12, pp.11-28, 2013.

J. Jacques and C. Lavergne, Sensitivity analysis in presence of model uncertainty and correlated inputs, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, vol.91, issue.10-11, pp.1126-1134, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ress.2005.11.047

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00194061

M. Joukamaa and M. Heliovaara, Schizophrenia, neuroleptic medication and mortality, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.188, issue.2, pp.122-129, 2006.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.188.2.122

P. Juillet, Dictionnaire de Psychiatrie, 2000.

A. Kadouri and E. Corruble, The improved Clinical Global Impression Scale (iCGI): development and validation in depression, BMC Psychiatry, vol.177, issue.30, p.7, 2007.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.177.39.s15

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00132510

S. Kawa and J. Giordano, A brief historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and implications for the future of psychiatric canon and practice, Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, vol.7, issue.1
DOI : 10.1186/1747-5341-7-2

S. Kawa and J. Giordano, A brief historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and implications for the future of psychiatric canon and practice, Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, vol.7, issue.1, 2012.
DOI : 10.1186/1747-5341-7-2

S. R. Kay and A. Fiszbein, The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.13, issue.2, pp.261-76, 1987.
DOI : 10.1093/schbul/13.2.261

S. R. Kay and L. A. Opler, The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation, Br J Psychiatry, issue.7, pp.59-67, 1989.
DOI : 10.1093/schbul/13.2.261

URL : http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/13/2/261

O. H. Klungel and E. P. Martens, Methods to assess intended effects of drug treatment in observational studies are reviewed, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol.57, issue.12, pp.1223-1254, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.03.011

J. Kreyenbuhl and S. C. Marcus, Adding or Switching Antipsychotic Medications in Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia, Psychiatric Services, vol.58, issue.7, pp.983-90, 2007.
DOI : 10.1176/ps.2007.58.7.983

F. Kwiatkowski and K. Slim, [Propensity score: interest and limits], Bull Cancer, vol.94, issue.7, pp.680-686, 2007.

J. Lacan and G. Heuyer, Alcoolisme subaigu à pouls normal ou ralenti. Coexistence du syndrome d'automatisme mental, pp.531-546, 1993.

M. Lader, What is relapse in schizophrenia?, International Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol.9, issue.5, pp.5-9, 1995.
DOI : 10.1097/00004850-199501005-00002

C. Lancon and P. Auquier, Relationships between depression and psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia during an acute episode and stable period, Schizophrenia Research, vol.47, issue.2-3, pp.135-175, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0920-9964(00)00002-5

R. Lapornik and M. Lehofer, Long-term imprisonment leads to cognitive impairment, Forensic Science International, vol.82, issue.2, pp.121-128, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0379-0738(96)01985-8

T. L. Lash and A. K. Fink, Semi-Automated Sensitivity Analysis to Assess Systematic Errors in Observational Data, Epidemiology, vol.14, issue.4, pp.451-459, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.EDE.0000071419.41011.cf

T. L. Lash and R. A. Silliman, A Sensitivity Analysis to Separate Bias Due to Confounding from Bias Due to Predicting Misclassification by a Variable That Does Both, Epidemiology, vol.11, issue.5, pp.544-553, 2000.
DOI : 10.1097/00001648-200009000-00010

P. W. Lavori and M. B. Keller, Improving the validity of FH-RDC diagnosis of major affective disorder in uninterviewed relatives in family studies: A model based approach, Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol.22, issue.4, pp.249-59, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3956(88)90034-9

A. F. Lehman and J. Kreyenbuhl, The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): Updated Treatment Recommendations 2003, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.30, issue.2, pp.193-217, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a007071

A. F. Lehman and J. A. Lieberman, Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, second edition, Am J Psychiatry, vol.161, issue.2, pp.1-56, 2004.

S. Leucht and R. Busch, Early Prediction of Antipsychotic Nonresponse Among Patients With Schizophrenia, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol.68, issue.03, pp.352-60, 2007.
DOI : 10.4088/JCP.v68n0301

S. Leucht and S. Heres, Methodological Issues in Current Antipsychotic Drug Trials, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.34, issue.2, pp.275-85, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/schbul/sbm159

D. Lhuilier and A. Lemiszewska, Le choc carcéral, 2001.

E. Lieberman and J. M. Lang, Association of epidural analgesia with cesarean delivery in nulliparas, Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.88, issue.6, pp.993-1000, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0029-7844(96)00359-6

J. A. Lieberman and T. S. Stroup, Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.353, issue.12, pp.1209-1232, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa051688

D. Y. Lin and B. M. Psaty, Assessing the Sensitivity of Regression Results to Unmeasured Confounders in Observational Studies, Biometrics, vol.54, issue.3, pp.948-63, 1998.
DOI : 10.2307/2533848

R. J. Little and D. B. Rubin, Causal Effects in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies Via Potential Outcomes: Concepts and Analytical Approaches, Annual Review of Public Health, vol.21, issue.1, pp.121-166, 2000.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.21.1.121

R. J. Little and D. B. Rubin, Statisticla analysis with missing data, 2002.

J. Y. Loze and B. Falissard, Validation of a new diagnostic procedure for DSM IV axis I disorders, International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol.59, issue.3, pp.134-175, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/mpr.131

J. K. Lunceford and M. Davidian, Stratification and weighting via the propensity score in estimation of causal treatment effects: a comparative study, Statistics in Medicine, vol.23, pp.2937-60, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.7231

C. Manzanera and J. Senon, Psychiatrie de liaison en milieu pénitentiaire: organisation, moyens, psychopathologies et réponses thérapeutiques, Ann Med Psychol, issue.162, pp.686-99, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amp.2004.07.011

E. P. Martens and A. De-boer, Comparing treatment effects after adjustment with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and propensity score methods, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol.387, issue.1, pp.1-8, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/pds.1520

A. K. Martin and G. Robinson, Theory of mind and the social brain: implications for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia, Genes, Brain and Behavior, vol.7, issue.Suppl 1, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/gbb.12066

R. Mayes and A. V. Horwitz, DSM-III and the revolution in the classification of mental illness, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, vol.150, issue.3, pp.249-67, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/jhbs.20103

L. C. Mccandless and P. Gustafson, Bayesian propensity score analysis for observational data, Statistics in Medicine, vol.14, issue.1, pp.94-112, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.3460

L. C. Mccandless and P. Gustafson, Bayesian sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounding in observational studies, Statistics in Medicine, vol.94, issue.11, pp.2331-2378, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.2711

M. Mcclellan and B. J. Mcneil, Does More Intensive Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly Reduce Mortality?, JAMA, vol.272, issue.11, pp.859-66, 1994.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.1994.03520110039026

J. P. Mcevoy and J. M. Meyer, Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: Baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III, Schizophrenia Research, vol.80, issue.1, pp.19-32, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.schres.2005.07.014

J. J. Mcgrath, Myths and plain truths about schizophrenia epidemiology - the NAPE lecture 2004, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.29, issue.1, pp.4-11, 2005.
DOI : 10.1017/S0033291798006898

D. E. Mcniel and R. L. Binder, Incarceration Associated With Homelessness, Mental Disorder, and Co-occurring Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Services, vol.56, issue.7, pp.840-846, 2005.
DOI : 10.1176/appi.ps.56.7.840

I. Melle and E. A. Barrett, Insight and suicidal behavior in first-episode schizophrenia, Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol.12, issue.3, pp.353-362, 2012.
DOI : 10.1586/ern.11.191

H. Y. Meltzer, Suicide in schizophrenia: risk factors and clozapine treatment, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.59, issue.3, pp.15-20, 1998.

E. L. Messias and C. Y. Chen, Epidemiology of Schizophrenia: Review of Findings and Myths, Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol.30, issue.3, pp.323-361, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.psc.2007.04.007

J. Meyer and C. E. Koro, The metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia: A review, International Review of Psychiatry, vol.184, issue.3, pp.173-80, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.26.3.575

J. M. Meyer and G. Pandina, Effects of switching from olanzapine to risperidone on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: Analysis of a multicenter, rater-blinded, open-label study, Clinical Therapeutics, vol.27, issue.12, pp.1930-1971, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.12.005

H. J. Moller, The psychopathology of schizophrenia, International Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol.10, issue.3, pp.57-64, 1995.
DOI : 10.1097/00004850-199509003-00008

C. Montout and F. Casadebaig, Neuroleptics and mortality in schizophrenia: prospective analysis of deaths in a French cohort of schizophrenic patients, Schizophrenia Research, vol.57, issue.2-3, pp.147-56, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00325-5

T. A. Moore and R. W. Buchanan, The Texas Medication Algorithm Project Antipsychotic Algorithm for Schizophrenia, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol.68, issue.11, pp.1751-62, 2007.
DOI : 10.4088/JCP.v68n1115

M. G. Morgan and P. J. Scully, Prospective analysis of premature mortality in schizophrenia in relation to health service engagement: a 7.5-year study within an epidemiologically complete, homogeneous population in rural Ireland, Psychiatry Research, vol.117, issue.2, pp.127-162, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-1781(03)00002-7

D. A. Morrissette and S. M. Stahl, Optimizing Outcomes in Schizophrenia: Long-acting Depots and Long-term Treatment, CNS Spectrums, vol.5, issue.s1, pp.10-21, 2012.
DOI : 10.1177/0269881111430735

J. E. Muller and Z. G. Turi, Digoxin Therapy and Mortality after Myocardial Infarction, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.314, issue.5, pp.265-71, 1986.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM198601303140501

C. Murgatroyd and D. Spengler, Epigenetics of Early Child Development, Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol.2, p.16, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00016

C. J. Murray and J. Abraham, The State of US Health, 1990-2010, JAMA, vol.310, issue.6, 2013.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2013.13805

C. J. Murray and M. A. Richards, UK health performance: findings of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, The Lancet, vol.381, issue.9871, pp.997-1020, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60355-4

C. J. Murray and T. Vos, Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990???2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, The Lancet, vol.380, issue.9859, pp.2197-223, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00827610

W. E. Narrow and D. S. Rae, Revised Prevalence Estimates of Mental Disorders in the United States, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.59, issue.2, pp.115-138, 2002.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.59.2.115

J. W. Newcomer, Second-Generation (Atypical) Antipsychotics and Metabolic Effects, CNS Drugs, vol.161, issue.4, pp.1-93, 2005.
DOI : 10.2165/00023210-200519001-00001

S. C. Newman and R. C. Bland, Mortality in a cohort of patients with schizophrenia: a record linkage study, Can J Psychiatry, vol.36, issue.4, pp.239-284, 1991.

P. Nitsche and K. Wilmanns, THE HISTORY OF PRISON PSYCHOSES, The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol.148, issue.3, 1912.
DOI : 10.1097/00000441-191409000-00021

O. 'tuathaigh, C. M. , and P. M. Moran, Genetic models of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders: progress and pitfalls across the methodological "minefield, Cell Tissue Res, 2013.

M. Powell and E. Ebel, Considering uncertainty in comparing the burden of illness due to foodborne microbial pathogens, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.69, issue.3, pp.209-224, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00495-0

D. A. Regier, Community Diagnosis Counts, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.57, issue.3, pp.223-227, 2000.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.57.3.223

S. Richard-devantoy and J. P. Olie, Risque d???homicide et troubles mentaux graves??: revue critique de la litt??rature, L'Enc??phale, vol.35, issue.6, pp.521-551, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.encep.2008.10.009

R. Franca, L. , and R. Launois, Cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in the treatment of severe sepsis with multiple organ failure, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, vol.9, issue.01, pp.101-109, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1050(199705)6:3<217::AID-HEC267>3.3.CO;2-N

P. Rosembaum and D. Rubin, The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects, Biometrika, vol.70, issue.1, pp.41-46, 1983.
DOI : 10.1093/biomet/70.1.41

P. R. Rosenbaum, Sensitivity Analysis for Matched Case-Control Studies, Biometrics, vol.47, issue.1, pp.87-100, 1991.
DOI : 10.2307/2532498

P. R. Rosenbaum, Sensitivity Analysis for m-Estimates, Tests, and Confidence Intervals in Matched Observational Studies, Biometrics, vol.19, issue.2, pp.456-64, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2006.00717.x

T. L. Roth and F. D. Lubin, Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, vol.1790, issue.9, pp.869-77, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbagen.2009.06.009

F. Rouillon and M. Toumi, Some Aspects of the Cost of Schizophrenia in France, PharmacoEconomics, vol.11, issue.6, pp.578-94, 1997.
DOI : 10.2165/00019053-199711060-00006

D. B. Rubin, Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores, Ann Intern Med, vol.1278, issue.2, pp.757-63, 1997.
DOI : 10.1017/cbo9780511810725.035

C. Rummel-kluge and K. Komossa, Head-to-head comparisons of metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Schizophrenia Research, vol.123, issue.2-3, pp.225-258, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.schres.2010.07.012

D. Ruta and A. Garratt, The SF 36 health survey questionnaire. A valid measure of health status..., BMJ, vol.307, issue.6901, pp.448-457, 1993.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.307.6901.448-b

A. Saltelli, Sensitivity Analysis for Importance Assessment, Risk Analysis, vol.23, issue.1, pp.579-90, 2002.
DOI : 10.1111/0272-4332.00040

A. Saltelli and K. Chan, Sensitivity Analysis, 2000.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00386559

A. Saltelli and S. Tarantola, On the Relative Importance of Input Factors in Mathematical Models, Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.97, issue.459, pp.702-709, 2002.
DOI : 10.1198/016214502388618447

J. L. Sanders, A Distinct Language and a Historic Pendulum: The Evolution of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, vol.25, issue.6, pp.394-403, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apnu.2010.10.002

E. Sarlon and D. Heider, A prospective study of health care resource utilisation and selected costs of schizophrenia in France, BMC Health Services Research, vol.4, issue.3, pp.269-76, 2012.
DOI : 10.3371/CSRP.4.3.2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00735980

A. Sawa and S. H. Snyder, Schizophrenia: Diverse Approaches to a Complex Disease, Science, vol.296, issue.5568, pp.692-697, 2002.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1070532

M. Scherr and M. Hamann, Environmental risk factors and their impact on the age of onset of schizophrenia: Comparing familial to non-familial schizophrenia, Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol.79, issue.2, pp.107-121, 2012.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770280039004

E. F. Schisterman and S. R. Cole, Overadjustment Bias and Unnecessary Adjustment in Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology, vol.20, issue.4, pp.488-95, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181a819a1

S. Schneeweiss, Sensitivity analysis and external adjustment for unmeasured confounders in epidemiologic database studies of therapeutics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol.317, issue.5, pp.291-303, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/pds.1200

S. Schneeweiss and J. Avorn, Antipsychotic Agents and Sudden Cardiac Death ??? How Should We Manage the Risk?, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.360, issue.3, pp.294-300, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMe0809417

T. Schnell and K. Neisius, Prevalence of psychosis/substance abuse comorbidity, Der Nervenarzt, vol.72, issue.3, pp.323-331, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00115-009-2862-6

C. S. Sebastian and W. Glazer, Naturalistic Studies of Second Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol.11, issue.3, pp.329-371, 2004.
DOI : 10.2174/0929867043456025

B. R. Shah and A. Laupacis, Propensity score methods gave similar results to traditional regression modeling in observational studies: a systematic review, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol.58, issue.6, pp.550-559, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.10.016

D. V. Sheehan and Y. Lecrubier, The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.59, issue.20, pp.22-33, 1998.

M. Shulman and I. J. Njoku, Thrombotic complications of treatment with antipsychotic drugs, Minerva Med, vol.104, issue.2, pp.175-84, 2013.

S. M. Stahl and D. A. Morrissette, ???Meta-guidelines??? for the management of patients with schizophrenia, CNS Spectrums, vol.18, issue.03, pp.150-62, 2013.
DOI : 10.4088/JCP.v68n1115

K. Steenland and S. Greenland, Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis and Bayesian Analysis of Smoking as an Unmeasured Confounder in a Study of Silica and Lung Cancer, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.160, issue.4, pp.384-92, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwh211

S. A. Stilo and R. M. Murray, The epidemiology of schizophrenia: replacing dogma with knowledge, Dialogues Clin Neurosci, vol.12, issue.3, pp.305-320, 2010.

T. A. Stukel and E. S. Fisher, Analysis of Observational Studies in the Presence of Treatment Selection Bias, JAMA, vol.297, issue.3, pp.278-85, 2007.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.297.3.278

T. Sturmer and M. Joshi, A review of the application of propensity score methods yielded increasing use, advantages in specific settings, but not substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol.59, issue.5, pp.437-484, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2005.07.004

T. Sturmer and S. Schneeweiss, Analytic Strategies to Adjust Confounding using Exposure Propensity Scores and Disease Risk Scores: Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Short-term Mortality in the Elderly, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.161, issue.9, pp.891-899, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwi106

M. S. Swartz and J. W. Swanson, Violence and severe mental illness: the effects of substance abuse and nonadherence to medication, Am J Psychiatry, vol.155, issue.2, pp.226-257, 1998.

P. Thomas, [Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia], Rev Prat, vol.63, issue.3, pp.349-53, 2013.

J. Tsai and R. A. Rosenheck, Psychiatric comorbidity among adults with schizophrenia: A latent class analysis, Psychiatry Research, vol.210, issue.1, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.05.013

T. J. Vanderweele, On the Relative Nature of Overadjustment and Unnecessary Adjustment, Epidemiology, vol.20, issue.4, pp.496-505, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181a82f12

T. J. Vanderweele and O. A. Arah, Bias Formulas for Sensitivity Analysis of Unmeasured Confounding for General Outcomes, Treatments, and Confounders, Epidemiology, vol.22, issue.1, pp.42-52, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181f74493

D. Vose, Risk analysis, 2000.

J. L. Waddington and H. A. Youssef, Mortality in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic polypharmacy and absence of adjunctive anticholinergics over the course of a 10-year prospective study, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.173, issue.4, pp.325-334, 1998.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.173.4.325

P. Weiden and B. Rapkin, Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) Scale in Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.20, issue.2, pp.297-310, 1994.
DOI : 10.1093/schbul/20.2.297

S. Weinmann and J. Read, Influence of antipsychotics on mortality in schizophrenia: Systematic review, Schizophrenia Research, vol.113, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.schres.2009.05.018

S. Weitzen and K. L. Lapane, Weaknesses of goodness-of-fit tests for evaluating propensity score models: the case of the omitted confounder, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol.14, issue.4, pp.227-265, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/pds.986

M. Wilson, DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history, Am J Psychiatry, vol.150, issue.3, pp.399-410, 1993.