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Etanchéité de l’interface argilite-bentonite re-saturée et soumise à une pression de gaz, dans le contexte du stockage profond de déchets radioactifs

Abstract : In France, the deep underground nuclear waste repository consists of a natural barrier (in an argillaceous rock named argillite), associated to artificial barriers, including plugs of swelling clay (bentonite)-sand for tunnel sealing purposes. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug in contact with argillite, in presence of both water and gas pressures. To assess the sealing ability of partially water-saturated bentonite/sand plugs, their gas permeability is measured under varying confining pressure (up to 12MPa). It is observed that tightness to gas is achieved under confinement greater than 9MPafor saturation levels of at least 86-91%. We than assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug placed in a tube of argillite or of Plexiglas-aluminium (with a smooth or a rough interface). The presence of pressurized gas affects the effective swelling pressure at values Pgas from 4MPa. Continuous gas breakthrough of fully water-saturated bentonite-sand plugs is obtained for gas pressures on the order of full swelling pressure (7-8MPa), whenever the plug is applied along a smooth interface. Whenever a rough interface is used in contact with the bentonite-sand plug, a gas pressure significantly greater than its swelling pressure is needed for gas to pass continuously. Gas breakthrough tests show that the interface between plug/argillite or the argillite itself are two preferential pathways for gas migration, when the assembly is fully saturated
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Jiangfeng Liu. Etanchéité de l’interface argilite-bentonite re-saturée et soumise à une pression de gaz, dans le contexte du stockage profond de déchets radioactifs. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lille, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ECLI0011⟩. ⟨tel-00951147⟩

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