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Force de résistance au mouvement d'un objet dans un milieu granulaire

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the force of resistance to the slow motion of an object (sphere, cylinder or disk) in a dense and dry granular medium. Experiments were conducted using two devices that permitted movement at constant velocity, with the aim of studying the influence of the object size, the grain size, the boundary conditions, and vibration of the grains. Using the first device in which the object moved vertically, we studied in detail the strong asymmetry of the resistance force during cycles of penetration/withdrawal of a horizontal cylinder and a sphere. In an attempt to understand the origin of this asymmetry, we implemented different boundary conditions: rigid and deformable walls on the sides and/or the bottom of the device, and free and quasi-rigid (loaded cover) conditions at the top. Previous work has shown that the characteristic length scale of the velocity field around a moving cylinder is the relevant length for both the lateral confinement and the deformation of the free surface, such as the formation of a crater during penetration or a mound during withdrawal. These deformation fields can be found by integrating a model of the velocity field around the object. Our use of a loaded-cover boundary condition has also revealed a variety of complex behaviors, including a force that no longer decreases with the depth of the object during the withdrawal phase. The second device allows the horizontal movement of a large hard intruder into a monolayer of small photoelastic disks which could be vibrated or not. Using this, we measured the overall force on the intruder and visualized the stress distribution in the granular medium. We were able to measure not only the large spatio-temporal velocity fluctuations, but also average values of the force on the intruder and the local stress and strain rate tensors around it, which allowed us to determine a local constitutive law for the medium. Finally, we have shown that vibration of the grains significantly changes the dependence of the force on the intruder speed, indicating a fluidization effect.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00968674, version 1

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Francisco Javier Martinez Carreaux. Force de résistance au mouvement d'un objet dans un milieu granulaire. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112345⟩. ⟨tel-00968674⟩

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