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Identification et caractérisation de gènes impliqués dans l'infertilité masculine

Abstract : About 15% of couples are confronted with infertility problems. In half of the cases, a male factor component is found, often with abnormal semen parameters. The etiology of the large majority of male infertility remains unknown and genetic origin is probably responsible of a significant proportion of spermatogenesis disorders. This work comprises two parts: in the first part, the analysis of a large cohort of patients (n = 87), allowed us to identify two new mutations in AURKC gene. A splice site mutation [c.36-2A> G] was identified in only two brothers and the second variant identified [p.Y248*] is a recurrent mutation found in 11 unrelated patients. The second part of our study was carried out on 20 infertile patients with flagellar abnormalities associated with asthenozoospermia. We have applied the strategy of homozygosity by descent who has bring out two regions of homozygosity: the first region, located on chromosome 3, is common for 9/20 patients and the second one, located on chromosome 20, is common for 13/20 patients. Three candidate genes present in these regions were selected: KIF9, SPAG4 and DNAH1. Sequencing of DNAH1 gene has bring out three type of mutations: missense mutation [c.3877G> A], run-on mutation [c.12796 T> C] and splice site mutation [c.5094 +1 G> A] [c.11958-1G> A]. The absence of dnah1 protein has been shown by immunostaining of spermatozoa of a patient carrier the mutation [c.11958-1G> A] and confirms the degradation of the mutated transcript by NMD. An electron microscopic analysis of spermatozoa of one patient of the cohort reveals axoneme abnormalities. This study clarifies the diagnosis of male infertility and broadens the knowledge of the genes involved in spermatogenesis.
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Mariem Ben Khelifa Ben Khelifa. Identification et caractérisation de gènes impliqués dans l'infertilité masculine. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Grenoble; UNIVERSITE DE TUNIS EL MANAR, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENS007⟩. ⟨tel-00987437⟩

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