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Dynamique de l'organisation nucléaire des séquences d'ADN répétées centromériques humaines au cours du cycle cellulaire

Abstract : The cell nucleus is a highly organized structure, playing an important role in gene regulation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is therefore essential for understanding genome function. Numerous studies conducted in mouse cells have shown that centromeric regions (RC) of chromosomes play a role in nuclear organization. The spatial organization of human RCs is less studied, mainly because of the complexity of the underlying DNA sequences that make them hard to detect. We have developed image processing and analysis tools, that, combined with new markers for human RCs, have allowed us to draw a better description of two features of their spatial organization. On the one hand, we have shown that they are preferentially located close to the nuclear periphery or nucleoli borders, with chromosome-dependent frequencies. On the other hand, we have shown that they cluster to form a heterochromatic compartment that displays similar properties as the one observed in other species such as mouse. Both features are inter-dependent, and vary throughout the cell-cycle. This new description puts on the track of mechanisms responsible for the peculiar organization of RCs. Those mechanisms could be studied using the methodology and the observables we have developed. The study of those mechanisms will provide a better understanding of human RC function in nuclear organization.
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https://theses.hal.science/tel-00989972
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Submitted on : Monday, May 12, 2014 - 5:17:10 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 7, 2022 - 4:26:16 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, August 12, 2014 - 12:05:44 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00989972, version 1

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Jean Ollion. Dynamique de l'organisation nucléaire des séquences d'ADN répétées centromériques humaines au cours du cycle cellulaire. Sciences agricoles. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA066040⟩. ⟨tel-00989972⟩

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