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Caractérisation biomécanique globale de la paroi abdominale saine, lésée et réparée : de l’ex vivo à l’in vivo

Abstract : Data on the biomechanical behaviour of the abdominal wall are limited. This lack of knowledge is a limiting factor for the development of numerical models of this anatomical area. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to provide quantitative data on the biomechanical behaviour of the abdominal wall, adopting a global experimental approach ranging from ex vivo to in vivo. As a first step, a protocol for ex vivo characterization is develop and validated on porcine specimens and then applied to human anatomical specimens. This protocol allows testing a same abdominal wall under two loading types (pressure and contact) in the elastic range. It also enables to assess the influence of an incision and of a repair with a surgical implant on the mechanical response. Measurements by 3D digital image correlation performed simultaneously on the internal and external surfaces quantify differences in strain distribution of the abdominal wall. As a second step, in vivo examinations on volunteers enable to take into account muscle activity. A local stiffness is thus assessed for various physiological activities. This stiffness increases with the level of muscle contraction and reaches on average six times the stiffness at rest. In conclusion, this research proposes a methodology to better understand the global mechanical behaviour of the abdominal wall. This methodology can now be used in order to study the influence of the different components of the abdominal wall. Beyond this thesis, these data will contribute to the construction and validation of a numerical model of the abdominal wall.
Mots-clés : BIOMECANIQUE
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Florence Podwojewski. Caractérisation biomécanique globale de la paroi abdominale saine, lésée et réparée : de l’ex vivo à l’in vivo. Ingénierie biomédicale. UNIVERSITE DE LYON, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00991119⟩

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