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Mémoire épigénétique des trajectoires pondérales maternelles préconceptionnelles au cours du développement et à long terme

Abstract : Maternal obesity (OB) impacts fetal growth and adult offspring phenotype. It is still unknown whether the currently recommended preconceptional weight loss (WL) for obese women is beneficial for feto-placental growth and adult offspring health. The objectives of this thesis were to assess the effects of maternal weight trajectories on offspring phenotype at term and in adulthood, as well as gene expression in placenta and fetal liver. At E18.5, fetuses from obese females presented a fetal growth restriction (FGR); this FGR was almost completely abolished by maternal WL. Placental and hepatic expression of epigenetic machinery genes was affected by maternal OB, especially the histone acetylation pathway. Maternal WL normalized the expression of only a subset of these genes. Males born to OB mothers gained weight faster under high-fat diet than males born to control mothers; maternal WL rescued this phenotype. These results show that expression of epigenetic machinery genes and in particular histone acetylation regulators, is highly sensitive to maternal obesity. Preconceptional WL alleviates the effects of OB on fetal and adult weight but some effects of obesity cured by nutritional intervention were retained in offspring phenotype at term. This study is an important step toward understanding the mechanisms linking maternal nutrition to fetal growth and adult health.
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https://theses.hal.science/tel-01332747
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 16, 2016 - 2:28:08 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 21, 2022 - 3:56:02 PM

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2015PA066574.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-01332747, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 339945

Citation

Polina Panchenko. Mémoire épigénétique des trajectoires pondérales maternelles préconceptionnelles au cours du développement et à long terme. Biologie du développement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066574⟩. ⟨tel-01332747⟩

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