G. Addolorato, L. Leggio, F. W. Hopf, M. Diana, and A. Bonci, Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Alcohol and Drug Addiction: Focus on GABA, Ion Channels and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.294, issue.1, pp.163-177, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.drudis.2010.02.011

S. H. Ahmed, Validation crisis in animal models of drug addiction: Beyond non-disordered drug use toward drug addiction, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.35, issue.2, pp.172-184, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.04.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01153600

S. Allouche, L. Marec, T. Noble, F. Marie, and N. , Different patterns of administration modulate propensity of methadone and buprenorphine to promote locomotor sensitization in mice, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol.40, pp.286-291, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.10.013

A. Bailey, J. H. Yoo, I. Racz, A. Zimmer, and I. Kitchen, Preprodynorphin mediates locomotion and D2 dopamine and mu-opioid receptor changes induced by chronic 'binge' cocaine administration, J. Neurochem, vol.102, 2007.

A. Becker, G. Grecksch, R. Brodemann, J. Kraus, B. Peters et al., Morphine self-administration in ??-opioid receptor-deficient mice, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol.361, issue.6, pp.584-589, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s002100000244

A. Becker, G. Grecksch, J. Kraus, H. H. Loh, H. Schroeder et al., Rewarding effects of ethanol and cocaine in ?? opioid receptor-deficient mice, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol.365, issue.4, pp.296-302, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00210-002-0533-2

F. Berrendero, B. L. Kieffer, and R. Maldonado, Attenuation of nicotine-induced antinociception, rewarding effects, and dependence in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice, J. Neurosci, vol.22, 2002.

F. Berrendero, V. Mendizabal, P. Robledo, L. Galeote, A. Bilkei-gorzo et al., Nicotine-Induced Antinociception, Rewarding Effects, and Physical Dependence Are Decreased in Mice Lacking the Preproenkephalin Gene, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.25, issue.5, 2005.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3008-04.2005

F. Berrendero, A. Plaza-zabala, L. Galeote, A. Flores, S. A. Bura et al., Influence of delta-opioid receptors in the behavioral effects of nicotine, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, 2012.

F. Berrendero, P. Robledo, J. M. Trigo, E. Martin-garcia, and R. Maldonado, Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: Participation of the endogenous opioid system, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.35, issue.2, pp.220-231, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.02.006

O. Berton, C. G. Hahn, and M. E. Thase, Are We Getting Closer to Valid Translational Models for Major Depression?, Science, vol.338, issue.6103, pp.75-79, 2012.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1222940

Y. A. Blednov, R. D. Mayfield, J. Belknap, and R. A. Harris, Behavioral actions of alcohol: phenotypic relations from multivariate analysis of mutant mouse data, Genes, Brain and Behavior, vol.29, issue.4, pp.424-435, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00780.x

Y. A. Blednov, D. Walker, M. Martinez, and R. A. Harris, Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin, Alcohol, vol.40, issue.2, pp.73-86, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.alcohol.2006.12.002

R. J. Bodnar, Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2011, Peptides, vol.38, issue.2, pp.463-522, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.peptides.2012.09.027

M. R. Bruchas, B. B. Land, and C. Chavkin, The dynorphin/kappa opioid system as a modulator of stress-induced and pro-addictive behaviors, Brain Research, vol.1314, pp.44-55, 1314.
DOI : 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.08.062

A. Castane, P. Robledo, A. Matifas, B. L. Kieffer, and R. Maldonado, Cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome is reduced in double mu and delta opioid receptor knockout mice, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.95, issue.1, pp.155-159, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02409.x

V. I. Chefer, T. Czyzyk, E. A. Bolan, J. Moron, J. E. Pintar et al., Endogenous ??-Opioid Receptor Systems Regulate Mesoaccumbal Dopamine Dynamics and Vulnerability to Cocaine, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.25, issue.20, pp.5029-5037, 2005.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0854-05.2005

V. I. Chefer, B. L. Kieffer, and T. S. Shippenberg, Basal and morphine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of MOR- and DOR-knockout mice, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.57, issue.7, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/0361-9230(84)90190-4

V. I. Chefer, B. L. Kieffer, and T. S. Shippenberg, Contrasting effects of ?? opioid receptor and ?? opioid receptor deletion upon the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine, Neuroscience, vol.127, issue.2, pp.497-503, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.05.021

V. I. Chefer and T. S. Shippenberg, Paradoxical effects of prodynorphin gene deletion on basal and cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.21, issue.1, pp.229-238, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04525.x

V. I. Chefer and T. S. Shippenberg, Augmentation of Morphine-Induced Sensitization but Reduction in Morphine Tolerance and Reward in Delta-Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.887-898, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/npp.2008.128

P. Chu-sin-chung and B. L. Kieffer, Delta opioid receptors in brain function and diseases, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.140, issue.1, pp.112-120, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.06.003

M. Comb, P. H. Seeburg, J. Adelman, L. Eiden, and E. Herbert, Primary structure of the human Met- and Leu-enkephalin precursor and its mRNA, Nature, vol.295, issue.5851, pp.663-666, 1982.
DOI : 10.1038/295663a0

W. M. Compton, Y. F. Thomas, F. S. Stinson, and B. F. Grant, Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Drug Abuse and Dependence in the United States, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.64, issue.5, pp.566-576, 2007.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.566

A. Contarino, R. Picetti, H. W. Matthes, G. F. Koob, B. L. Kieffer et al., Lack of reward and locomotor stimulation induced by heroin in ??-opioid receptor-deficient mice, European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.446, issue.1-3, pp.103-109, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0014-2999(02)01812-5

C. Contet, B. L. Kieffer, and K. Befort, Mu opioid receptor: a gateway to drug addiction, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol.14, issue.3, pp.370-378, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conb.2004.05.005

J. C. Crabbe, R. A. Harris, and G. F. Koob, Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.168, issue.Suppl 2, pp.1216-1240, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05895.x

J. W. Dalley, T. D. Fryer, F. I. Aigbirhio, L. Brichard, H. K. Richards et al., Modelling human drug abuse and addiction with dedicated small animal positron emission tomography, Neuropharmacology, vol.56, pp.9-17, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.05.029

V. David, A. Matifas, S. Gavello-baudy, L. Decorte, B. L. Kieffer et al., Brain regional Fos expression elicited by the activation of mu-but not deltaopioid receptors of the ventral tegmental area: evidence for an implication of the ventral thalamus in opiate reward, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.33, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00282970

E. Drews and A. Zimmer, Modulation of alcohol and nicotine responses through the endogenous opioid system, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.90, issue.1, pp.1-15, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.09.004

C. J. Evans, K. Jr, D. E. Morrison, H. Magendzo, K. Edwards et al., Cloning of a delta opioid receptor by functional expression, Science, vol.258, issue.5090, 1992.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1335167

B. J. Everitt, D. Belin, D. Economidou, Y. Pelloux, J. W. Dalley et al., Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.26, issue.1, pp.3125-3135, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbr.2005.07.012

T. Femenia and J. Manzanares, Increased ethanol intake in prodynorphin knockout mice is associated to changes in opioid receptor function and dopamine transmission, Addiction Biology, vol.93, issue.8, pp.322-337, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00378.x

D. Filliol, S. Ghozland, J. Chluba, M. Martin, H. W. Matthes et al., Mice deficient for delta-and mu-opioid receptors exhibit opposing alterations of emotional responses, Nat. Genet, vol.25, 2000.

C. D. Fowler and P. J. Kenny, Utility of genetically modified mice for understanding the neurobiology of substance use disorders, Human Genetics, vol.59, issue.Pt 1, pp.941-957, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00439-011-1129-z

L. Galeote, F. Berrendero, S. A. Bura, A. Zimmer, and R. Maldonado, Prodynorphin gene disruption increases the sensitivity to nicotine self-administration in mice, The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.12, issue.05, pp.615-625, 2009.
DOI : 10.1017/S1461145708009450

C. Gaveriaux-ruff and B. L. Kieffer, Conditional gene targeting in the mouse nervous system: Insights into brain function and diseases, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.113, issue.3, pp.619-634, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2006.12.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190962

C. Gaveriaux-ruff and B. L. Kieffer, Delta opioid receptor analgesia, Behavioural Pharmacology, vol.22, issue.5 and 6, pp.405-414, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/FBP.0b013e32834a1f2c

C. Gaveriaux-ruff, C. Nozaki, X. Nadal, X. C. Hever, R. Weibel et al., Genetic ablation of delta opioid receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons increases chronic pain and abolishes opioid analgesia, Pain, vol.152, issue.6, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pain.2010.12.031

S. Ghozland, K. Chu, B. L. Kieffer, and A. J. Roberts, Lack of stimulant and anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol and accelerated development of ethanol dependence in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, Neuropharmacology, vol.49, issue.4, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.04.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187545

S. Ghozland, H. W. Matthes, F. Simonin, D. Filliol, B. L. Kieffer et al., Motivational effects of cannabinoids are mediated by mu-opioid and kappaopioid receptors, J. Neurosci, vol.22, 2002.

C. Gianoulakis, Endogenous opioids and addiction to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, Curr. Top. Med. Chem, vol.9, 2009.

C. Goeldner, P. E. Lutz, E. Darcq, T. Halter, D. Clesse et al., Impaired Emotional-Like Behavior and Serotonergic Function During Protracted Abstinence from Chronic Morphine, Biological Psychiatry, vol.69, issue.3, pp.236-244, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.021

A. Goldstein, S. Tachibana, L. I. Lowney, M. Hunkapiller, and L. Hood, Dynorphin-(1-13), an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.76, issue.12, pp.6666-6670, 1979.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.76.12.6666

N. J. Grahame, M. J. Low, and C. L. Cunningham, Intravenous Self-Administration of Ethanol in beta-Endorphin-Deficient Mice, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol.17, issue.5, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02246549

S. Granier, A. Manglik, A. C. Kruse, T. S. Kobilka, F. S. Thian et al., Structure of the ??-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole, Nature, vol.66, issue.7398, pp.400-404, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature11111

J. E. Grisel, J. S. Mogil, N. J. Grahame, M. Rubinstein, J. K. Belknap et al., Ethanol oral self-administration is increased in mutant mice with decreased ??-endorphin expression1Published on the World Wide Web on 1 April 1999.1, Brain Research, vol.835, issue.1, pp.62-67, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01384-0

U. Gubler, P. Seeburg, B. J. Hoffman, L. P. Gage, and S. Udenfriend, Molecular cloning establishes proenkephalin as precursor of enkephalin-containing peptides, Nature, vol.278, issue.5846, 1982.
DOI : 10.1038/295206a0

R. Guillemin, N. Ling, and R. Burgus, Endorphins, hypothalamic and neurohypophysial peptides with morphinomimetic activity: isolation and molecular structure of alpha-endorphin, C. R. Acad. Sci. Hebd Seances Acad. Sci. D, vol.282, pp.783-785, 1976.

A. Gustavsson, M. Svensson, F. Jacobi, C. Allgulander, J. Alonso et al., Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010, European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.21, issue.10, pp.718-779, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.08.008

M. Hadjiconstantinou and N. H. Neff, Nicotine and endogenous opioids: Neurochemical and pharmacological evidence, Neuropharmacology, vol.60, issue.7-8, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.11.010

F. S. Hall, M. Goeb, X. F. Li, I. Sora, and G. R. Uhl, ??-Opioid receptor knockout mice display reduced cocaine conditioned place preference but enhanced sensitization of cocaine-induced locomotion, Molecular Brain Research, vol.121, issue.1-2, pp.123-130, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.10.024

F. S. Hall, I. Sora, and G. R. Uhl, Ethanol consumption and reward are decreased in ??-opiate receptor knockout mice, Psychopharmacology, vol.154, issue.1, pp.43-49, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s002130000622

M. D. Hayward, S. T. Hansen, J. E. Pintar, and M. J. Low, Operant self-administration of ethanol in C57BL/6 mice lacking ?-endorphin and enkephalin, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol.79, issue.1, pp.171-181, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.07.002

M. Heilig, D. Goldman, W. Berrettini, and C. P. O-'brien, Pharmacogenetic approaches to the treatment of alcohol addiction, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.13, issue.11, pp.670-684, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn3110

S. A. Heldt and K. J. Ressler, The use of lentiviral vectors combined with Cre/loxP to investigate the function of genes in complex behaviors, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol.2, p.22, 2009.
DOI : 10.3389/neuro.02.022.2009

J. Hughes, T. W. Smith, H. W. Kosterlitz, L. A. Fothergill, B. A. Morgan et al., Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity, Nature, vol.17, issue.5536, pp.577-580, 1975.
DOI : 10.1038/258577a0

M. Hummel, M. A. Ansonoff, J. E. Pintar, and E. M. Unterwald, Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of ?? opioid receptors in mice reveals a differential effect on behavioral sensitization to cocaine, Neuroscience, vol.125, issue.1, pp.211-220, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.01.025

S. E. Hyman, A glimmer of light for neuropsychiatric disorders, Nature, vol.325, issue.7215, pp.890-893, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nature07454

A. J. Jasinska, T. Zorick, A. L. Brody, and E. A. Stein, Dual role of nicotine in addiction and cognition: a review of neuroimaging studies in humans. Neuro- pharmacology, p.15, 2013.

H. Kakidani, Y. Furutani, H. Takahashi, M. Noda, Y. Morimoto et al., Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for porcine ??-neo-endorphin/dynorphin precursor, Nature, vol.75, issue.5871, pp.245-249, 1982.
DOI : 10.1038/298245a0

P. W. Kalivas and N. D. Volkow, New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity, Molecular Psychiatry, vol.22, issue.10, pp.974-986, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nature06963

K. R. Kaun, A. V. Devineni, and U. Heberlein, Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study drug addiction, Human Genetics, vol.153, issue.Suppl 1, pp.959-975, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00439-012-1146-6

B. L. Kieffer, Recent advances in molecular recognition and signal transduction of active peptides: Receptors for opioid peptides, Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol.359, issue.6, pp.615-635, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02071128

B. L. Kieffer, K. Befort, C. Gaveriaux-ruff, and C. G. Hirth, The delta-opioid receptor: isolation of a cDNA by expression cloning and pharmacological characterization, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.89, 1992.

B. L. Kieffer and C. Gaveriaux-ruff, Exploring the opioid system by gene knockout, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.66, issue.5, pp.285-306, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0301-0082(02)00008-4

E. W. Klee, H. Schneider, K. J. Clark, M. A. Cousin, J. O. Ebbert et al., Zebrafish: a model for the study of addiction genetics, Human Genetics, vol.3, issue.Suppl 1, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00439-011-1128-0

A. T. Knoll, C. Jr, and W. A. , Dynorphin, stress, and depression, Brain Research, vol.1314, pp.1314-56, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.09.074

H. N. Koenig and M. F. Olive, Ethanol consumption patterns and conditioned place preference in mice lacking preproenkephalin, Neuroscience Letters, vol.325, issue.2, pp.75-78, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00242-2

G. F. Koob, K. Lloyd, G. Mason, and B. J. , Development of pharmacotherapies for drug addiction: a Rosetta Stone approach, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol.179, issue.6, pp.500-515, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nrd2828

G. F. Koob, L. Moal, and M. , Addiction and the Brain Antireward System, Annual Review of Psychology, vol.59, issue.1, pp.29-53, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093548

G. F. Koob, A. J. Roberts, B. L. Kieffer, C. J. Heyser, S. N. Katner et al., Animal Models of Motivation for Drinking in Rodents with a Focus on Opioid Receptor Neuropharmacology, Recent Dev. Alcohol, vol.16, pp.263-281, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/0-306-47939-7_19

G. F. Koob and N. D. Volkow, Neurocircuitry of Addiction, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.16, issue.1, pp.217-238, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)01070-2

K. M. Kovacs, I. Szakall, D. O-'brien, R. Wang, K. Y. Vinod et al., Decreased Oral Self-Administration of Alcohol In ??-Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice, Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, vol.9, issue.7, pp.730-738, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00844-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00129902

P. Y. Law, Y. H. Wong, and H. H. Loh, Molecular Mechanisms and Regulation of Opioid Receptor Signaling, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol.40, issue.1, pp.389-430, 2000.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.40.1.389

L. Merrer, J. Becker, J. A. Befort, K. Kieffer, and B. L. , Reward Processing by the Opioid System in the Brain, Physiological Reviews, vol.89, issue.4, 2009.
DOI : 10.1152/physrev.00005.2009

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00438654

L. Merrer, J. Faget, L. Matifas, A. Kieffer, and B. L. , Cues predicting drug or food reward restore morphine-induced place conditioning in mice lacking delta opioid receptors, Psychopharmacology, vol.77, issue.1, pp.99-106, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00213-012-2693-1

L. Merrer, J. Plaza-zabala, A. , D. Boca, C. Matifas et al., Deletion of the ?? Opioid Receptor Gene Impairs Place Conditioning But Preserves Morphine Reinforcement, Biological Psychiatry, vol.69, issue.7, pp.700-703, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.021

H. M. Lesscher, M. Hordijk, N. P. Bondar, O. V. Alekseyenko, J. P. Burbach et al., ??-Opioid Receptors are not Involved in Acute Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity nor in Development of Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization in Mice, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.30, issue.2, pp.278-285, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.npp.1300529

C. H. Li and D. Chung, Isolation and structure of an untriakontapeptide with opiate activity from camel pituitary glands., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.73, issue.4, 1976.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.73.4.1145

A. H. Lichtman, S. M. Sheikh, H. H. Loh, and B. R. Martin, Opioid and cannabinoid modulation of precipitated withdrawal in delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine-dependent mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther, vol.298, 2001.

J. A. Loweth and P. Vezina, Sensitization Animal Models of Drug Addiction, pp.191-205, 2011.

P. E. Lutz and B. L. Kieffer, Opioid receptors: distinct roles in mood disorders, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.36, issue.3, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tins.2012.11.002

P. E. Lutz and B. L. Kieffer, The multiple facets of opioid receptor function: implications for addiction, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol.23, issue.4, pp.473-479, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conb.2013.02.005

R. Maldonado, F. Berrendero, A. Ozaita, and P. Robledo, Neurochemical basis of cannabis addiction, Neuroscience, vol.181, pp.1-17, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.02.035

R. Maldonado, J. A. Blendy, E. Tzavara, P. Gass, B. P. Roques et al., Reduction of Morphine Abstinence in Mice with a Mutation in the Gene Encoding CREB, Science, vol.273, issue.5275, pp.657-659, 1996.
DOI : 10.1126/science.273.5275.657

A. Manglik, A. C. Kruse, T. S. Kobilka, F. S. Thian, J. M. Mathiesen et al., Crystal structure of the ??-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist, Nature, vol.66, issue.7398, pp.321-326, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature10954

A. Mansour, C. A. Fox, H. Akil, and S. J. Watson, Opioid-receptor mRNA expression in the rat CNS: anatomical and functional implications, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.18, issue.1, pp.22-29, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-2236(95)93946-U

P. Marquez, R. Baliram, I. Dabaja, N. Gajawada, and K. Lutfy, The role of beta-endorphin in the acute motor stimulatory and rewarding actions of cocaine in mice, Psychopharmacology, vol.10, issue.3, pp.443-448, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00213-007-1053-z

P. Marquez, R. Baliram, B. L. Kieffer, and K. Lutfy, The mu opioid receptor is involved in buprenorphine-induced locomotor stimulation and conditioned place preference, Neuropharmacology, vol.52, issue.6, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.01.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00189977

D. S. Mathon, H. M. Lesscher, M. A. Gerrits, A. Kamal, J. E. Pintar et al., Increased gabaergic input to ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons associated with decreased cocaine reinforcement in ??-opioid receptor knockout mice, Neuroscience, vol.130, issue.2, pp.359-367, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.10.002

H. W. Matthes, R. Maldonado, F. Simonin, O. Valverde, S. Slowe et al., Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the ??-opioid-receptor gene, Nature, vol.383, issue.6603, pp.819-823, 1996.
DOI : 10.1038/383819a0

T. M. Mcgranahan, N. E. Patzlaff, S. R. Grady, S. F. Heinemann, and T. K. Booker, alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine reward and anxiety relief, J. Neurosci, p.31, 2011.

J. P. Mclaughlin, B. B. Land, S. Li, J. E. Pintar, and C. Chavkin, Prior Activation of Kappa Opioid Receptors by U50,488 Mimics Repeated Forced Swim Stress to Potentiate Cocaine Place Preference Conditioning, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.173, issue.4, pp.787-794, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.npp.1300860

J. P. Mclaughlin, S. Li, J. Valdez, T. A. Chavkin, and C. Chavkin, Social Defeat Stress-Induced Behavioral Responses are Mediated by the Endogenous Kappa Opioid System, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.173, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.npp.1300872

J. P. Mclaughlin, M. Marton-popovici, and C. Chavkin, Kappa opioid receptor antagonism and prodynorphin gene disruption block stress-induced behavioral responses, J. Neurosci, vol.23, pp.5674-5683, 2003.

C. S. Mcpherson, T. Mantamadiotis, S. S. Tan, and A. J. Lawrence, Deletion of CREB1 from the Dorsal Telencephalon Reduces Motivational Properties of Cocaine, Cerebral Cortex, vol.20, issue.4, pp.941-952, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/bhp159

V. Mendizabal, A. Zimmer, and R. Maldonado, Involvement of kappa/dynorphin system in WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in mice, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.31, 2006.

A. Mestek, J. H. Hurley, L. S. Bye, A. D. Campbell, Y. Chen et al., The human mu opioid receptor: modulation of functional desensitization by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, J. Neurosci, vol.15, 1995.

H. Mizoguchi, C. Watanabe, S. Osada, M. Yoshioka, Y. Aoki et al., Lack of a rewarding effect and a locomotor-enhancing effect of the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist amidino-TAPA, pp.215-225, 2010.

K. Monory, H. Blaudzun, F. Massa, N. Kaiser, T. Lemberger et al., Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of ??9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice, PLoS Biology, vol.109, issue.10, p.269, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050269.sd001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00707868

A. Nagy, Cre recombinase: The universal reagent for genome tailoring, genesis, vol.22, issue.2, pp.99-109, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1526-968X(200002)26:2<99::AID-GENE1>3.0.CO;2-B

S. Nakanishi, A. Inoue, T. Kita, M. Nakamura, A. C. Chang et al., Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for bovine corticotropin-??-lipotropin precursor, Nature, vol.49, issue.5703, pp.423-427, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(77)90193-3

E. J. Nestler, Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction?, Nature Neuroscience, vol.12, issue.11, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.06.025

E. J. Nestler and S. E. Hyman, Animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, Nature Neuroscience, vol.455, issue.10, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nn.2647

A. T. Nguyen, P. Marquez, A. Hamid, B. Kieffer, T. C. Friedman et al., The rewarding action of acute cocaine is reduced in ??-endorphin deficient but not in ?? opioid receptor knockout mice, European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.686, issue.1-3, pp.50-54, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.04.040

A. T. Nguyen, P. Marquez, A. Hamid, and K. Lutfy, The role of mu opioid receptors in psychomotor stimulation and conditioned place preference induced by morphine-6-glucuronide, European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.682, issue.1-3, pp.86-91, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.02.021

K. Nguyen, A. Tseng, P. Marquez, A. Hamid, and K. Lutfy, The role of endogenous dynorphin in ethanol-induced state-dependent CPP, Behavioural Brain Research, vol.227, issue.1, pp.58-63, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.10.035

K. Niikura, M. Narita, D. Okutsu, Y. Tsurukawa, K. Nanjo et al., Implication of endogenous ??-endorphin in the inhibition of the morphine-induced rewarding effect by the direct activation of spinal protein kinase C in mice, Neuroscience Letters, vol.433, issue.1, pp.54-58, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.12.042

J. F. Nitsche, A. G. Schuller, M. A. King, M. Zengh, G. W. Pasternak et al., Genetic dissociation of opiate tolerance and physical dependence in delta-opioid receptor-1 and preproenkephalin knock-out mice, J. Neurosci, vol.22, 2002.

M. Noda, Y. Furutani, H. Takahashi, M. Toyosato, T. Hirose et al., Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for bovine adrenal preproenkephalin, Nature, vol.5, issue.5846, pp.202-206, 1982.
DOI : 10.1038/295202a0

O. 'brien, C. P. Gardner, and E. L. , Critical assessment of how to study addiction and its treatment: Human and non-human animal models, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.108, issue.1, pp.18-58, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.06.018

C. B. Pert and S. H. Snyder, Opiate Receptor: Demonstration in Nervous Tissue, Science, vol.179, issue.4077, 1973.
DOI : 10.1126/science.179.4077.1011

H. M. Pettinati and A. R. Rabinowitz, New pharmacotherapies for treating the neurobiology of alcohol and drug addiction, Psychiatry, vol.3, pp.14-16, 2006.

R. C. Pierce, C. P. O-'brien, P. J. Kenny, and L. J. Vanderschuren, Rational development of addiction pharmacotherapies: successes, failures, and prospects. Cold Spring Harb Perspect, 2012.

R. C. Pierce and M. E. Wolf, Psychostimulant-induced neuroadaptations in nucleus accumbens AMPA receptor transmission. Cold Spring Harb Perspect, 2013.

G. S. Portugal and T. J. Gould, Genetic variability in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and nicotine addiction: Converging evidence from human and animal research, Behavioural Brain Research, vol.193, issue.1, pp.1-16, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.05.006

M. N. Potenza, M. Sofuoglu, K. M. Carroll, and B. J. Rounsaville, Neuroscience of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Addictions, Neuron, vol.69, issue.4, pp.695-712, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.009

A. A. Pradhan, K. Befort, C. Nozaki, C. Gaveriaux-ruff, and B. L. Kieffer, The delta opioid receptor: an evolving target for the treatment of brain disorders, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol.32, issue.10, pp.581-590, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tips.2011.06.008

S. Puig, F. Noble, and N. Benturquia, Short- and long-lasting behavioral and neurochemical adaptations: relationship with patterns of cocaine administration and expectation of drug effects in rats, Translational Psychiatry, vol.56, issue.10, p.175, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s002130050273

I. Racz, A. Markert, D. Mauer, B. Stoffel-wagner, and A. Zimmer, Long-term ethanol effects on acute stress responses: modulation by dynorphin, Addiction Biology, vol.21, issue.4, pp.678-688, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00494.x

I. Racz, B. Schurmann, A. Karpushova, M. Reuter, S. Cichon et al., The Opioid Peptides Enkephalin and ??-Endorphin in Alcohol Dependence, Biological Psychiatry, vol.64, issue.11, pp.989-997, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.008

K. Radwanska and L. Kaczmarek, Characterization of an alcohol addiction-prone phenotype in mice, Addiction Biology, vol.42, issue.3, pp.601-612, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00394.x

V. A. Redila and C. Chavkin, Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking is mediated by the kappa opioid system, Psychopharmacology, vol.11, issue.Suppl 1, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00213-008-1122-y

A. J. Roberts, L. H. Gold, I. Polis, J. S. Mcdonald, D. Filliol et al., Increased Ethanol Self-Administration in delta-Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol.22, issue.9, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0014-2999(98)00423-3

A. J. Roberts, J. S. Mcdonald, C. J. Heyser, B. L. Kieffer, H. W. Matthes et al., mu-Opioid receptor knockout mice do not self-administer alcohol, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther, vol.293, 2000.

T. E. Robinson and K. C. Berridge, The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.21, issue.19, pp.3137-3146, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-4328(95)00131-C

P. Robledo, V. Mendizabal, J. Ortuno, R. De-la-torre, B. L. Kieffer et al., The rewarding properties of MDMA are preserved in mice lacking u-opioid receptors, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.104, issue.3, pp.853-858, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-2999(88)90564-X

I. Roth-deri, T. Green-sadan, and G. Yadid, ??-Endorphin and drug-induced reward and reinforcement, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.86, issue.1, pp.1-21, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.06.003

C. Sanchis-segura and R. Spanagel, Behavioural assessment of drug reinforcement and addictive features in rodents: an overview, Addiction Biology, vol.21, issue.1, pp.2-38, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s002130000405

A. L. Sharpe and M. J. Low, Proopiomelanocortin Peptides Are Not Essential for Development of Ethanol-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol.159, issue.7, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00944.x

X. Shen, C. Purser, L. T. Tien, C. T. Chiu, I. A. Paul et al., mu-Opioid receptor knockout mice are insensitive to methamphetamineinduced behavioral sensitization, J. Neurosci. Res, vol.88, 2010.

T. S. Shippenberg, A. Zapata, and V. I. Chefer, Dynorphin and the pathophysiology of drug addiction, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.116, issue.2, pp.306-321, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.06.011

J. R. Shoblock and N. T. Maidment, Enkephalin release promotes homeostatic increases in constitutively active mu opioid receptors during morphine withdrawal, Neuroscience, vol.149, issue.3, pp.642-649, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.05.011

E. J. Simon, J. M. Hiller, and I. Edelman, Stereospecific Binding of the Potent Narcotic Analgesic [3H]Etorphine to Rat-Brain Homogenate, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.70, issue.7, 1973.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.70.7.1947

F. Simonin, K. Befort, C. Gaveriaux-ruff, H. Matthes, V. Nappey et al., The human delta-opioid receptor: genomic organization , cDNA cloning, functional expression, and distribution in human brain, Mol. Pharmacol, vol.46, 1994.

F. Simonin, C. Gaveriaux-ruff, K. Befort, H. Matthes, B. Lannes et al., kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, pp.7006-7010, 1995.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.92.15.7006

F. Simonin, O. Valverde, C. Smadja, S. Slowe, I. Kitchen et al., Disruption of the kappa -opioid receptor gene in mice enhances sensitivity to chemical visceral pain, impairs pharmacological actions of the selective kappa -agonist U-50,488H and attenuates morphine withdrawal, The EMBO Journal, vol.17, issue.4, pp.886-897, 1998.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/17.4.886

P. D. Skoubis, H. A. Lam, J. Shoblock, S. Narayanan, and N. T. Maidment, Endogenous enkephalins, not endorphins, modulate basal hedonic state in mice, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.325, issue.5, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03956.x

M. Solinas, S. R. Goldberg, and D. Piomelli, The endocannabinoid system in brain reward processes, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.400, issue.Suppl 1, pp.369-383, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/bjp.2008.130

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00398409

I. Sora, G. Elmer, M. Funada, J. Pieper, X. F. Li et al., ?? Opiate Receptor Gene Dose Effects on Different Morphine Actions Evidence for Differential in vivo ?? Receptor Reserve, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.25, issue.1, pp.41-54, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0893-133X(00)00252-9

R. Spanagel, Alcohol addiction research: from animal models to clinics, Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol.17, issue.4, pp.507-518, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1521-6918(03)00031-3

R. Spanagel, A. Herz, and T. S. Shippenberg, Opposing tonically active endogenous opioid systems modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway., Proc. Natl, 1992.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.89.6.2046

R. E. Sperling, S. M. Gomes, E. I. Sypek, A. N. Carey, and J. P. Mclaughlin, Endogenous kappa-opioid mediation of stress-induced potentiation of ethanolconditioned place preference and self-administration, Psychopharmacology, vol.210, 2010.

A. Stewart, K. Wong, J. Cachat, S. Gaikwad, E. Kyzar et al., Zebrafish models to study drug abuse-related phenotypes, Reviews in the Neurosciences, vol.22, issue.1, pp.95-105, 2011.
DOI : 10.1515/rns.2011.011

S. Jr, S. D. Devi, and L. A. , Functional relevance of mu-delta opioid receptor heteromerization: a role in novel signaling and implications for the treatment of addiction disorders: from a symposium on new concepts in mu-opioid pharmacology, Drug Alcohol Depend, vol.121, pp.167-172, 2012.

L. Terenius, Characteristics of the ???Receptor??? for Narcotic Analgesics in Synaptic Plasma Membrane Fraction from Rat Brain, Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, vol.80, issue.suppl. I, pp.377-384, 1973.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1973.tb01539.x

M. Tian, H. E. Broxmeyer, Y. Fan, Z. Lai, S. Zhang et al., Altered hematopoiesis , behavior, and sexual function in mu opioid receptor-deficient mice, J. Exp. Med, vol.185, 1997.

J. M. Trigo, E. Martin-garcia, F. Berrendero, P. Robledo, and R. Maldonado, The endogenous opioid system: A common substrate in drug addiction, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol.108, issue.3, pp.183-194, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.10.011

J. M. Trigo, A. Zimmer, and R. Maldonado, Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking beta-endorphin, Neuropharmacology, vol.56, 2009.

H. C. Tsai, F. Zhang, A. Adamantidis, G. D. Stuber, A. Bonci et al., Phasic Firing in Dopaminergic Neurons Is Sufficient for Behavioral Conditioning, Science, vol.324, issue.5930, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1168878

L. M. Tuesta, C. D. Fowler, and P. J. Kenny, Recent advances in understanding nicotinic receptor signaling mechanisms that regulate drug self-administration behavior, Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.82, issue.8, pp.984-995, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.06.026

T. M. Tzschentke, Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: update of the last decade, Addiction Biology, vol.21, issue.3-4, pp.227-462, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0306-4522(99)00309-7

O. Valverde, R. Maldonado, E. Valjent, A. M. Zimmer, and A. Zimmer, Cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome is reduced in pre-proenkephalin knock-out mice, 2000.

J. Neurosci-rijn, R. M. Brissett, D. I. Whistler, and J. L. , Dual efficacy of delta opioid receptor-selective ligands for ethanol drinking and anxiety, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther, vol.20, issue.335, pp.133-139, 2010.

R. M. Van-rijn and J. L. Whistler, The ??1 Opioid Receptor Is a Heterodimer That Opposes the Actions of the ??2 Receptor on Alcohol Intake, Biological Psychiatry, vol.66, issue.8, pp.777-784, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.05.019

L. J. Vanderschuren and R. C. Pierce, Sensitization Processes in Drug Addiction, Curr. Top. Behav. Neurosci, vol.3, pp.179-195, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/7854_2009_21

D. Vigano, T. Rubino, and D. Parolaro, Molecular and cellular basis of cannabinoid and opioid interactions, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol.81, issue.2, pp.360-368, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pbb.2005.01.021

N. D. Volkow and P. Skolnick, New Medications for Substance Use Disorders: Challenges and Opportunities, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.9, issue.1, pp.290-292, 2012.
DOI : 10.1001/archneur.64.11.1575

C. L. Walters, J. N. Cleck, Y. C. Kuo, and J. A. Blendy, ??-Opioid Receptor and CREB Activation Are Required for Nicotine Reward, Neuron, vol.46, issue.6, pp.933-943, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.05.005

L. P. Wang, F. Li, X. Shen, and J. Z. Tsien, Conditional Knockout of NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons Prevents Nicotine-Conditioned Place Preference, PLoS ONE, vol.459, issue.1, p.8616, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0008616.g005

S. Wee and G. F. Koob, The role of the dynorphin????? opioid system in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, Psychopharmacology, vol.21, issue.Suppl 1, pp.121-135, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00213-010-1825-8

I. B. Witten, S. C. Lin, M. Brodsky, R. Prakash, I. Diester et al., Cholinergic Interneurons Control Local Circuit Activity and Cocaine Conditioning, Science, vol.330, issue.6011, 2010.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1193771

C. J. Woolf, What is this thing called pain?, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.120, issue.11, pp.3742-3744, 2011.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI45178

H. Wu, D. Wacker, M. Mileni, V. Katritch, G. W. Han et al., Structure of the human ??-opioid receptor in complex with JDTic, Structure of the human kappa-opioid receptor in complex with JDTic, pp.327-332, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature10939

J. H. Yoo, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, S. Lee, H. H. Loh et al., Differential effects of morphine- and cocaine-induced nNOS immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus of mice lacking ??-opioid receptors, Neuroscience Letters, vol.395, issue.2, pp.98-102, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.10.089

J. H. Yoo, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, H. H. Loh, I. K. Ho et al., Reduced nNOS expression induced by repeated nicotine treatment in ??-opioid receptor knockout mice, Neuroscience Letters, vol.380, issue.1-2, pp.70-74, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.01.001

J. H. Yoo, I. Kitchen, and A. Bailey, The endogenous opioid system in cocaine addiction: what lessons have opioid peptide and receptor knockout mice taught us?, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.2, issue.7, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01952.x

J. H. Yoo, S. Y. Lee, H. H. Loh, I. K. Ho, and C. G. Jang, Loss of nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in ?-opioid receptor knockout mice, Synapse, vol.74, issue.4, pp.219-223, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/syn.10303

J. H. Yoo, E. M. Yang, S. Y. Lee, H. H. Loh, I. K. Ho et al., Differential effects of morphine and cocaine on locomotor activity and sensitization in ??-opioid receptor knockout mice, Neuroscience Letters, vol.344, issue.1, pp.37-40, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00410-5

Z. Q. Zhao, Y. J. Gao, Y. G. Sun, C. S. Zhao, R. W. Gereau et al., Central serotonergic neurons are differentially required for opioid analgesia but not for morphine tolerance or morphine reward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0705740104

A. Zimmer, E. Valjent, M. Konig, A. M. Zimmer, P. Robledo et al., Absence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol dysphoric effects in dynorphin-deficient mice, J. Neurosci, vol.21, pp.9499-9505, 2001.