H. Abe, T. Urao, T. Ito, M. Seki, K. Yamaguchi-shinozaki et al., Arabidopsis AtMYC2 (bHLH) and AtMYB2 (MYB) Function as Transcriptional Activators in Abscisic Acid Signaling, THE PLANT CELL ONLINE, vol.15, issue.1, pp.63-78, 2003.
DOI : 10.1105/tpc.006130

A. Aboukhaled and S. Sarraf, A comparison of water use for a hybrid corn in the Bekaa and the coastal plain, pp.1-14, 1970.

M. Agassi, W. F. Kirsten, A. H. Loock, and P. Fine, Percolation and leachate composition in a disturbed soil layer mulched with sewage biosolids, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.45, issue.3-4, pp.359-372, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0933-3630(97)00028-7

A. A. Agbogan, . Rich, L. Hochst, E. Et, K. Krause et al., Usages, structures et potentiels de régénération et d'adaptation de Sclerocarya birrea, p.209, 2014.

S. M. Aggelides and P. A. Londra, Effects of compost produced from town wastes and sewage sludge on the physical properties of a loamy and a clay soil, Bioresource Technology, vol.71, issue.3, pp.253-259, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00074-7

A. Aguilar, C. Casas, and J. M. Lema, Degradation of volatile fatty acids by differently enriched methanogenic cultures: Kinetics and inhibition, Water Research, vol.29, issue.2, pp.505-509, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0043-1354(94)00179-B

A. K. Akibodé, Cultures ouvrières: Rendements, revenus et problèmes de production dans les zones rurales du Nord-Togo, 1986.

B. J. Alloway, Contamination of soils in domestic gardens and allotments: a brief overview, Land Contamination & Reclamation, vol.12, issue.3, pp.179-187, 2004.
DOI : 10.2462/09670513.658

S. Amir, Contribution à la valorisation de boues de station d'épuration par compostage: Devenir des micropolluants métalliques et organiques et bilan humique du compost, Thèse de Doctorat de l'Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, p.341, 2005.

G. F. Antonious, T. S. Kochhar, and T. Cooloong, Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, vol.60, issue.13, 2012.
DOI : 10.1080/03601234.2010.493495

Y. Avnimelech, M. Bruner, J. Ezrony, R. Sela, and M. Kochba, Stability Indexes For Municipal Solid Waste Compost, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.3, issue.2, pp.13-20, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0043-1354(79)90227-6

F. Attia, Effet du stress hydrique sur le comportement écophysiologique et la maturité phénolique de la vigne Vitis vinifera L.: Etude de cinq cepaces autochtones de Midi- Pyrénées, Thèse de Doctorat de l'Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, p.194, 2007.

B. Attrasi, L. Mrabet, A. Douira, K. Ounine, and N. Haloui, Etude de la valorisation agronomique des composts des déchets ménagers, Biotechnol. et Envir., Atelier " Biotechnologies " au Maroc, issue.6, 2005.

R. Azarmi, M. T. Giglou, and B. Hajieghrari, The effect of sheep-manure vermicompost on quantitative and qualitative properties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in the greenhouse, Afr. J. Biotechnol, vol.8, issue.19, pp.4953-4957, 2009.

O. Y. Azouma and K. Seme, Eco-exploitation d'une industrie de transformation de produits agricoles. Communication scientifique, Colloque Scientifique sur la Gestion et la Valorisation des Déchets, 2011.

V. B. Bado and V. Hien, Efficacité du phosphate naturel sur le riz pluvial en sol ferralitique, Cah. Agri, vol.7, pp.236-238, 1998.

J. Baeyens, Nutrition des plantes de culture ou physiologie appliquée aux plantes Agricoles, Naiwelaerts Louvain, vol.278, 1967.

T. Bahrampour and P. S. Ziveh, Effect of Vermicompost on Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Fruits, Intl. J. Agron. Plant. Prod, vol.4, issue.11, pp.2965-2971, 2013.

M. Bajji, J. M. Kinet, and S. Lutts, The use of the electrolyte leakage method for assessing cell membrane stability as a water stress tolerance test in durum wheat, Plant Growth Reg, vol.00, pp.1-10, 2001.

J. Baker, C. H. Steel, and I. I. Dure, Sequence and characterization of 6 Lea proteins and their genes from cotton, Plant Molecular Biology, vol.7, issue.3, pp.277-291, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00027385

S. A. Barber, A DIFFUSION AND MASS-FLOW CONCEPT OF SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY, Soil Science, vol.93, issue.1, pp.39-49, 1962.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-196201000-00007

S. A. Barber, Soil nutrient bioavailability: a mechanism approach, 1995.

H. D. Barrs and P. E. Weatherly, A Re-Examination of the Relative Turgidity Technique for Estimating Water Deficits in Leaves, Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, vol.15, issue.3, pp.413-428, 1968.
DOI : 10.1071/BI9620413

A. V. Barker and G. M. Bryson, Comparisons of Composts with Low or High Nutrient Status for Growth of Plants in Containers, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol.31, issue.6, pp.1303-1319, 2006.
DOI : 10.1081/CSS-120000265

C. Basalo, Les ordures ménagères en agriculture, J. Soil Man, vol.69, pp.15-23, 1974.

T. Beffa, M. Blanc, P. F. Lyon, G. Vogt, M. Marchina et al., Isolation of thermos strains from hot composts (60-80°C) JAEM, pp.1723-1727, 1996.

O. N. Belyaeva and R. Haynes, Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash, Bioresource Technology, vol.100, issue.21, pp.5203-5209, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.05.032

M. Bennai and B. Benabbas, L'amélioration des rendements des céréales par une fertilisation adaptée aux conditions pédoclimatiques Algériennes, Constantine. Eds Prochert, p.33, 2007.

A. Berg, N. De-noblet-ducoudré, B. Sultan, M. Lengaigne, and M. Guimberteau, Projections of climate change impacts on potential C4 crop productivity over tropical regions, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.170, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.12.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01496000

M. P. Bernal, M. A. Navarro, M. A. Sanchez-monedero, A. Roig, and J. Cegarra, Influence of sewage sludge compost stability and maturity on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.30, issue.3, pp.305-313, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00129-6

R. Bernard, L'eau et la vie. (éd). Dauphin, pp.13-59, 2006.

C. Berthe, E. Redon, and G. Feuillade, Fractionation of organic matter contained in leachate resulting from two modes of land filling: An indicator of waste degradation, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.54, pp.262-271, 2008.

J. K. Besset, M. Genard, T. Girard, V. Serra, and C. Bussi, Effect of water stress applied during the final stage of rapid growth on peach trees (cv. Big-Top), Scientia Horticulturae, vol.91, issue.3-4, pp.289-303, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-4238(01)00272-2

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumar, and S. Devotta, Studies on acidification in two-phase biomethanation process of municipal solid waste, Waste Management, vol.28, issue.1, pp.164-169, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wasman.2006.11.014

C. L. Bielders, K. Michels, and A. Bationo, On farm evaluation of ridging and residue management options in a sahelian millet-cowpea intercrop. I. Soil quality change. Soil Use Manage, pp.216-222, 2002.

A. B. Blivi, Recherche sur les changements climatiques au Togo, p.145, 2010.

E. Bock, H. P. Koops, and H. Harms, Nitrifying bacteria, pp.11-14, 1989.

N. Bolan, D. Adriano, and D. Curtin, Soil acidification and liming interactions with nutrientand heavy metal transformationand bioavailability, Advances Agron, vol.78, pp.215-272, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2113(02)78006-1

M. M. Bradford, A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.72, issue.1-2, pp.248-254, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

L. M. Bresson, C. Koch, L. Bissonnais, Y. Barriuso, E. Lecomte et al., Soil Surface Structure Stabilization by Municipal Waste Compost Application, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.65, issue.6, pp.1804-1811, 2001.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2001.1804

P. E. Brevedan and D. B. Egli, Short Periods of Water Stress during Seed Filling, Leaf Senescence, and Yield of Soybean, Crop Science, vol.43, issue.6, pp.2083-2088, 2003.
DOI : 10.2135/cropsci2003.2083

W. F. Brinton, E. Evans, M. L. Droffner, and R. B. Brinton, Standardized test for evaluation of compost self-heating, Biocycle, vol.36, pp.64-69, 1995.

M. L. Casals, Introduction des mécanismes de résistance à la sécheresse dans un model dynamique de croissance et de développement du blé dur, Thèse de Doctorat de L'INRA, p.93, 1996.

P. Castaldi, G. Alberti, R. Merella, and P. Melis, Study of the organic matter evolution during municipal solid waste composting aimed at identifying suitable parameters for the evaluation of compost maturity, Waste Management, vol.25, issue.2, pp.209-213, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wasman.2004.12.011

P. Castaldi, G. Garau, and P. Melis, Influence of compost from seeds on heavy metal dynamics in the soil-plants system, FEB, issue.11b, pp.13-1322, 2004.

P. Castaldi, G. Garau, and P. Melis, Maturity assessment of compost from municipal solid waste through the study of enzyme activities and water-soluble fractions, Waste Management, vol.28, issue.3, pp.534-540, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.002

D. J. Chalmers, P. D. Mitchell, and P. H. Jerie, The relation between irrigation, growth and productivity of peach tree, Acta Hortic, vol.173, pp.283-288, 1985.

T. Chantou, Identification des indicateurs de stabilisation des déchets solides urbains et validation sur un site de PTMB français, pour une application en Tunisie, p.238, 2012.

S. C. Chapman and G. O. Edmeades, Selection Improves Drought Tolerance in Tropical Maize Populations, Crop Science, vol.39, issue.5, pp.1315-1324, 1999.
DOI : 10.2135/cropsci1999.3951315x

A. Chappell and C. T. Agnew, Modelling climate change in West African Sahel rainfall(1931???90) as an artifact of changing station locations, International Journal of Climatology, vol.24, issue.5, pp.547-54, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.1021

F. Charnay, Compostage des déchets dans les pays en développement: élaboration d'une démarche méthodologique pour une production pérenne de compost, Thèse de doctorat, 2005.

K. Chartzoulakis, B. Noitsakis, and I. Therios, Photosynthesis, plant growth and dry matter distribution in kiwi fruit as influenced by water deficits, Irrig.Sci, vol.14, pp.1-5, 1993.

B. Chefetz, P. G. Hatcher, Y. Hadar, and Y. Chen, Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter Extracted from Composted Municipal Solid Waste, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.62, issue.2, pp.326-332, 1998.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200020005x

Y. Chen, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Infra-Red and Pyrolysis: Application of Spectroscopic Methodologies to Maturity Determination of Composts, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.21, issue.18, pp.152-168, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/09593330.2000.9618962

E. S. Chian, M. Asce, and F. B. Dewalle, Sanitary landfill leachates and their treatment, J. Env. Eng. Div.-ASCE, vol.102, pp.411-431, 1976.

A. Chica, J. J. Mohedo, M. A. Martin, and A. Martin, Determination of the Stability of MSW Compost Using a Respirometric Technique, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.33, issue.2, pp.169-175, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/01448765.1993.9754656

L. Chitsan, A negative-pressure aeration system for composting food wastes, Bioresour. Technol, vol.99, pp.7651-7656, 2008.

N. Claassen, K. M. Syring, and G. O. Jungt, Verifizierung eines mathematischen Modells durch Simulation der Kaliumaufnahme aus dem Boden, Plant and Soil, vol.1, issue.2, pp.209-220, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02375073

E. Compaoré, L. S. Nanema, S. Bonkoungou, and M. P. Sedogo, Evaluation de la qualité de composts de déchets urbains solides de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso pour une utilisation efficiente en agriculture, J.. Appl. Biosci, vol.33, pp.2076-2083, 2010.

G. Cornic and C. Fresneau, Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction and Carbon Oxidation Cycles are the Main Electron Sinks for Photosystem II Activity During a Mild Drought, Annals of Botany, vol.89, issue.7, pp.887-894, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcf064

L. R. Cooperband, A. G. Stone, M. R. Fryda, and J. L. Ravet, Relating Compost Measures of Stability And Maturity to Plant Growth, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.27, issue.12, pp.113-124, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/09593339309385287

C. Directive, Council directive on the undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition. Council Directive, EC, vol.29, p.32, 1999.

N. Côte, Impact agronomique de l'application des composts à base de résidus chitineux, 1999.

E. Coventry, R. Noble, A. Mead, and J. M. Whipps, Control of Allium white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) with composted onion waste, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.34, issue.7, pp.1037-1045, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00037-8

B. Dabin, Les sols acides tropicaux, Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Pedol, vol.21, pp.7-19, 1985.

Y. P. Dang, R. Chabbra, and K. S. Verma, Effect of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn on growth and chemical composition of onion and fenugreek, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol.21, issue.9-10, pp.717-735, 1990.
DOI : 10.1080/00103627609366609

D. K. Danklou, Agriculture du Togo, Aspects généraux, p.30, 2006.

D. Bertoldi, M. Rutili, A. Citterio, B. Civillini, and M. , Composting Management: a New Process Control Through O2 Feedback, Waste Management & Research, vol.22, issue.1, pp.239-259, 1988.
DOI : 10.1177/0734242X8600400157

D. Bertoldi, M. Vallini, G. Pera, and A. , The Biology of Composting: a Review, Waste Management & Research, vol.22, issue.2, pp.157-176, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0143-1471(81)90009-X

D. Candole and A. , Origine des plantes cultivées, Baillière et Cie, p.377, 1883.

J. Delas, C. Molot, and J. P. Soyer, Effects of nitrogen fertilization and grafting on the yield and quality of the crop of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrogen in grapes and Wine, pp.242-248, 1991.

I. Deportes, J. Benoit-guyod, and D. Zmirou, Hazard to man and the environment posed by the use of urban waste compost: a review, Science of The Total Environment, vol.172, issue.2-3, pp.197-222, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0048-9697(95)04808-1

S. Devisscher, Le compost, p.60, 1997.

R. S. Dhindsa, D. P. Plumb, and T. A. Thorpe, Leaf Senescence: Correlated with Increased Levels of Membrane Permeability and Lipid Peroxidation, and Decreased Levels of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol.32, issue.1, pp.93-101, 1981.
DOI : 10.1093/jxb/32.1.93

L. Djaname, Contribution à l'étude du comportement de deux nouvelles variétés de ma?s dans la région de Davié au sud Togo. Mémoire, 1989.

O. Djerroudi-zidane and B. Moulay, Effect of salt stress on proline accumulation in young plants of Atriplex halimus L. and Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. Eur, J. Sci. Res, vol.41, issue.2, pp.249-260, 2010.

J. F. Doebley and H. H. Iltis, Taxonomy of Zea (Gramineae). I. A Subgeneric Classification with Key to Taxa, American Journal of Botany, vol.67, issue.6, pp.982-993, 1980.
DOI : 10.2307/2442441

N. Dogan and S. Ak?nc?, Effects of water stress on the uptake of nutrients by bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Fresen, Environ. Bull, vol.20, issue.8a, pp.2163-2173, 2011.

D. R. Geiger and T. R. Conti, Relation of Increased Potassium Nutrition to Photosynthesis and Translocation of Carbon, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.71, issue.1, pp.141-144, 1983.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.71.1.141

M. Gelly, I. Recasens, M. Mata, A. Arbones, J. Rufa et al., Effects of water deficit during stage II of peach fruit development and postharvest on fruit quality and ethylene production, The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, vol.78, issue.3, pp.324-330, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/14620316.2003.11511626

P. A. Gerakis, F. P. Geurrero, and W. A. Williams, Growth, Water Relations and Nutrition of Three Grassland Annuals as Affected by Drought, The Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.12, issue.1, pp.125-135, 1975.
DOI : 10.2307/2401722

L. Giardini, R. Giovanardi, and M. Borin, Water consumption and yield response of tomato in relation to water availability at different soil depth (Sic), Acta Hort, vol.228, pp.119-126, 1988.

P. Girardin, Ecophysiologie du maïs: Fonctionnement de la plante et de la culture, (Association générale des producteurs de maïs, p.323, 1999.

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Gritz, and M. N. Merzlyak, Relationships between leaf chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance and algorithms for non-destructive chlorophyll assessment in higher plant leaves, Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.160, issue.3, pp.271-282, 2003.
DOI : 10.1078/0176-1617-00887

L. A. Gladden, Y. Wang, C. Hsieh, and I. Tsou, Using deficit irrigation approach for evaluating the effects of water restriction on field tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Afr, 2012.

B. Godden, Etude du processus de compostage du fumier de bovin, Thèse de doctorat en Sciences Agronomiques, 1986.

B. Godden, La gestion des effluents d'élevage. Techniques et aspect du compostage dans une ferme biologique, p.37, 1995.

C. G. Golueke, The biological approach to solid waste management, Compost Sci, vol.18, pp.4-9, 1977.

C. G. Golueke, The Biocycle Guide to the Art and Science of Composting, 1991.

A. Gomez, C. Desenfants, and C. Juste, Transfert du cadmium du sol à la plante: Influence de la température du substrat et de la présence d'autres métaux lourds. Ministère de l'Environnement, Convention de recherche, pp.86-129, 1988.

J. Gorham, Genetics and physiology of enhanced K/Na discrimination, Genetics aspects of plant mineral Nutrition, p.400, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-011-1650-3_19

S. Goyal, S. K. Dhull, and K. K. Kapoor, Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and assessment of compost maturity, Bioresource Technology, vol.96, issue.14, pp.1584-1591, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.12.012

L. Guan and J. G. Scandalios, , Respond Differentially to Abscisic Acid and High Osmoticum, Plant Physiology, vol.117, issue.1, pp.217-224, 1998.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.117.1.217

P. L. Giusquiani, M. Pagliai, G. Gigliotti, D. Businelli, and A. Benetti, Urban Waste Compost: Effects on Physical, Chemical, and Biochemical Soil Properties, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.24, issue.1, pp.175-182, 1995.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1995.00472425002400010024x

M. Guittonny-larchevêque, Valorisation d'un compost de boues urbaines en garrigue pour le reboisement, comportement des jeunes arbres d'une plantation et modification de la dynamique de la végétation naturelle après amendement, Thèse de Doctorat, p.227, 2004.

C. Granier, D. Inzé, and F. Tardieu, Spatial distribution cell division rate can be deduced from that of P34 cdc2 temperatures and water status, Plant Physiol, vol.124, pp.1395-1402, 2000.

J. Gross, Pigment in vegetables: chlorophylls and carotenoids, p.351, 1991.

A. Hadas and R. Portnoy, Rates of Decomposition in Soil and Release of Available Nitrogen from Cattle Manure and Municipal Waste Composts, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.17, issue.12, pp.48-54, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(85)90128-2

M. Hafidi, Biodégradation des déchets organiques par la filière du compostage; atouts et limites Communication scientifique, Colloque scientifique sur la gestion et la valorisation des déchets solides des villes Africaines, pp.30-31, 2011.

N. P. Hall, J. Pierre, and N. E. Tolbert, Formation of a carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate complex with ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and theoretical specific activity of the enzyme, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol.212, issue.1, pp.115-119, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-9861(81)90349-0

C. Han-song, H. Qiao-yun, L. Li-na, C. Peng, L. Wei et al., Poultry manure compost alleviates the phytotoxicity of soil cadmium: influence on growth of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.). Pedosphere, pp.63-70, 2010.

R. T. Haug, The practical handbook of compost engineering, p.752, 1993.

J. C. Hargreaves, M. S. Adl, and P. R. Warman, A review of the use of composted municipal solid waste in agriculture, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.123, issue.1-3, pp.1-14, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2007.07.004

E. Hasanzadeh, M. G. Sepanlou, and M. A. Bahmanyar, Effects of potassium and manure fertilizers on concentration of micro elements in leaf and grain of wheat under water stress, 2012.

N. A. Hassan, W. A. Jackson, J. V. Drew, D. Knudsen, and R. A. Olson, Influence of Soil Salinity on Production of Dry Matter and Uptake and Distribution of Nutrients in Barley and Corn: I. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)1, Agronomy Journal, vol.62, issue.1, pp.43-45, 1970.
DOI : 10.2134/agronj1970.00021962006200010014x

A. Hassen, K. Belguith, N. Jedidi, A. Cherif, M. Cherif et al., Microbial characterization during composting of municipal solid waste, Bioresource Technology, vol.80, issue.3, pp.217-225, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00065-7

J. J. Hassett, J. E. Miller, and D. E. Koeppe, Interaction of lead and cadmium on maize root growth and uptake of lead and cadmium by roots, Environmental Pollution (1970), vol.11, issue.4, pp.297-302, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-9327(76)90069-0

S. Hernando, M. Lobo, and A. Polo, Effect of the application of a municipal refuse compost on the physical and chemical properties of a soil, Science of The Total Environment, vol.81, issue.82, pp.589-596, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0048-9697(89)90167-8

R. D. Hodges, Soil organic matter: its central position in organic farming In: Advances in Soil Organic Matter Research: The impact on Agriculture and the Environment, pp.355-365, 1991.

P. Hinsinger, A. Schneider, and J. E. Dufey, Le sol: ressource en nutriments et, pp.285-305, 2005.

S. Houot, C. Francou, C. Vergé-leviel, J. Michelin, S. Bourgeois et al., Valeur agronomique et impacts environnementaux de composts d'origine urbaine: variation avec la nature du compost, pp.107-125, 2003.

A. H. Huang and A. J. Cavalieri, Proline Oxidase and Water Stress-induced Proline Accumulation in Spinach Leaves, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.63, issue.3, pp.531-535, 1979.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.63.3.531

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC542864/pdf

G. F. Huang, J. W. Wong, Q. T. Wu, and B. B. Nagar, Effect of C/N on composting of pig manure with sawdust, Waste Management, vol.24, issue.8, pp.805-813, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wasman.2004.03.011

N. V. Hue and J. Liu, Predicting Compost Stability, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.38, issue.3, pp.8-15, 1995.
DOI : 10.1080/00380768.1992.10416703

J. H. Hsu and S. L. Lo, Effect of composting on characterization and leaching of copper, manganese, and zinc from swine manure, Environmental Pollution, vol.114, issue.1, pp.119-127, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00198-6

D. A. Iannotti, T. Pang, B. L. Toth, D. L. Elwell, H. M. Keener et al., A Quantitative Respirometric Method for Monitoring Compost Stability, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.27, issue.6, pp.52-65, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0922-338X(92)90229-N

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.405.681

Y. Inbar, Y. Hadar, and Y. Chen, Characterization of humic substances formed during the composting of solid wastes from wineries, Science of The Total Environment, vol.113, issue.1-2, pp.35-48, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0048-9697(92)90015-K

D. Inze and M. Van-montagu, Oxidative stress in plants, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.153-158, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0958-1669(95)80024-7

M. Irene and C. Lo, Characteristics and treatment of leachates from domestic landfills, Environ. Int, vol.22, pp.433-442, 1996.

P. Jacomijn, Composting of organic household waste. UWEP working Document, p.196, 1996.

M. M. Jones, C. B. Osmond, and N. C. Turner, Accumulation of Solutes in Leaves of Sorghum and Sunflower in Response to Water Deficits, Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.7, issue.2, pp.193-205, 1980.
DOI : 10.1071/PP9800193

A. Jouraiphy, S. Amir, M. Gharous, J. Revel, and M. Hafidi, Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.56, issue.2, pp.101-108, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ibiod.2005.06.002

H. A. Joris, E. F. Caires, A. R. Bini, D. A. Scharr, and A. Haliski, Effects of soil acidity and water stress on corn and soybean performance under a no-till system, Plant and Soil, vol.47, issue.1-2, pp.409-424, 2012.
DOI : 10.1071/SR08273

A. Josserand, Apport de l'immunofluorescence à l'étude écologique des germes nitrifiants (genre Nitrobacter), Thèse de Doctorat, p.151, 1983.

W. Kaboré, Impact de l'apport des déchets urbains solides non triés sur les potentialités agronomiques des sols: cas de l'agriculture périurbaine d'Ouagadougou, p.78, 2004.

J. S. Kalvanagh and A. N. Heris, The Effect of water deficit stress, organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and yield components of dragon's head (Lallemantia iberica), Int. J, 2013.

H. Kaminaka, S. Moriba, M. Tokumoto, T. Masurmura, and K. Tanaka, Differential Gene Expressions of Rice Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms to Oxidative and Environmental Stresses, Free Radical Research, vol.31, issue.sup1, pp.219-225, 1999.
DOI : 10.1080/10715769900301541

K. Kang, H. S. Shin, and H. Park, Characterization of humic substances present in landfill leachates with different landfill ages and its implications, Water Research, vol.36, issue.16, pp.4023-4032, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00114-8

S. Kanval, . Rahmatullah, A. M. Ranja, and . R. Ahmad, Zn partitioning in maize grain alter soil fertilization with Zn sulfate, Int. J. Agric. Biol, vol.12, pp.299-302, 2010.

Y. Kapulnik, Plant growth promotion by rhizosphere Bacteria. (Eds) Plant Root, the hidden half, pp.869-885, 1996.

K. Karima and B. Louhichi, Réponse au stress hydrique de quelques variétés de blé tendre (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivées en Algérie, Eur. J. Sci. Res, vol.81, issue.4, pp.524-532, 2012.

H. Kauss, Biochemistry de regulation, Int. Rev. Biochem, vol.II, pp.119-139, 1977.

S. Kawasaki, M. Dehholos, C. Borchert, S. Brazille, K. Kawai et al., Temporal succession of salt stress responses in rice by microarray analysis, Plant Cell, vol.12, pp.889-906, 2001.

N. Kiès, La plante et l'eau ", cours polycopié, p.40, 1977.

J. W. Kim, A. Mahe, J. Brangeon, and J. L. Prioul, Is Induced by Water Stress. Organ/Tissue Specificity and Diurnal Modulation of Expression, Plant Physiology, vol.124, issue.1, pp.71-84, 2000.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.124.1.71

H. Kirchman and P. Widen, Fatty Acid Formation during Composting of Separately Collected Organic Household Wastes, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.13, issue.1, pp.17-19, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0141-4607(85)90031-9

K. Kirdja, Conception d'une usine de conservation de tomate, p.112, 1991.

H. Kirnak, C. Kaya, I. Ta?, and D. Higgs, The influence of water deficit on vegetative growth, physiology, fruit yield and quality in egg plants, Bulg. J. Plant Physiol, vol.27, pp.3-4, 2001.

S. D. Klassou, Evolution climato-hydrologique récente et conséquences sur L'Environnement: l'exemple du bassin versant du fleuve Mono (Togo-Bénin), Thèse de Doctorat, p.472, 1996.

L. Kolani, Effets de différents types de composts élaborés à base de coques de grains de coton sur le rendement en grain de maïs, p.91, 2007.

K. E. Koledzi, G. Baba, G. Tchangbedji, K. Agbeko, G. Matejka et al., Experimental study of urbans waste composting and evaluation of it's agricultural valorization in Lomé (Togo), Asian J. Appl. Sci, vol.4, issue.4, pp.378-391, 2011.

K. E. Koledzi, Valorisation des déchets solides urbains dans les quartiers de Lomé (Togo): Approche méthodologique pour une production durable de compost, p.224, 2011.

I. Komljenovic, M. Markovic, J. Todorovic, and M. Cvijovic, Influences of fertilization by phosphorus on yield and nutritional status of maize in Potkozarje area, Cereal Research Communications, vol.34, issue.1, pp.549-552, 2006.
DOI : 10.1556/CRC.34.2006.1.137

J. Kovacik, B. Klejdus, J. Hedbavny, F. Stork, and J. Gruz, Plants, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.60, issue.27, pp.6755-6763, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/jf3013426

S. Kuo, M. E. Ortiz-escobar, N. V. Hue, and R. L. Hummel, Composting and compost utilization for agronomic container crops, Recent Res. Devel. Environ. Biol, vol.1, pp.451-513, 2004.

J. Labanowski, Matière organique naturelle et anthropique: Vers une meilleure compréhension de sa réactivité et de sa caractérisation, Thèse de doctorat, p.209, 2004.

J. Labanowski and G. Feuillade, Combination of biodegradable organic matter quantification and XAD-fractionation as effective working parameter for the study of biodegradability in environmental and anthropic samples, Chemosphere, vol.74, issue.4, pp.605-611, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.063

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00653621

J. C. Laberche, La nutrition de la plante In Biologie Végétale. Dunod. 2 e (éd), pp.154-163, 2004.

T. Lagier, Etude de macromolécules de lixiviat : caractérisation et comportement vis-àvis des métaux. Thèse, 2000.

L. Lakhdar, C. Hafsi, M. Rabhi, A. Debez, F. Montemurro et al., Nouvelle méthodologie du suivi des transformations de la matière organique, Thèse de Doctorat, p.170, 2008.

Y. Lare, Lutte antiérosive et contraintes socio-économiques dans la région des savanes du Nord-Togo. Sécheresse, pp.103-114, 2008.

E. Lebon, A. Pellegrino, F. Tardieu, and J. Lecoeur, Shoot Development in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is Affected by the Modular Branching Pattern of the Stem and Intra- and Inter-shoot Trophic Competition, Annals of Botany, vol.93, issue.3, pp.263-274, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mch038

B. Leclerc, Guide des matières organiques; (eds) guide technique de l'ITAB, p.238, 2001.

J. Lecoeur, J. Wery, O. Turc, and F. Tardieu, Expansion of pea leaves subjected to short water deficit: cell number and cell size are sensitive to stress at different periods of leaf development, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol.46, issue.9, pp.1093-1101, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/jxb/46.9.1093

L. Gouée, P. Cantat, O. L. Bensaïd, A. L. Savouret, and E. , La sensibilité des systèmes de production agricole en normandie face au changement climatique (2000-2100). 23 ième Colloque de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie, pp.331-336, 2010.

F. Lemou, Le dérèglement pluviométrique et la dynamique de l'occupation et l'exploitation des sols dans le bassin versant de la Kara, p.102, 2008.

J. Levitt, Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses, Journal of Range Management, vol.38, issue.5, p.297, 1972.
DOI : 10.2307/3899731

A. Lguirati, G. Baddi-ait, A. El-mousadik, V. Gilard, J. C. Revel et al., Analysis of humic acids from aerated and non-aerated urban landfill composts, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.56, issue.1, pp.8-16, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ibiod.2005.03.004

L. Herroux, L. , L. Rous, S. Appriou, P. Martinez et al., Behaviour of metals following intensive pig slurry applications to a natural field treatment process, 1997.

L. 'hôte, Y. Mahé, G. Somé, B. Triboulet, and J. P. , Analysis of a Sahelian annual rainfall index from 1896 to 2000; the drought continues, Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol.325, issue.4, pp.563-72, 2002.
DOI : 10.2307/2346729

C. Liang, K. C. Das, and R. W. Mc-clendon, The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend, Bioresource Technology, vol.86, issue.2, pp.131-137, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00153-0

B. J. Lindsay and T. J. Logan, Field Response of Soil Physical Properties to Sewage Sludge, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.27, issue.3, pp.534-542, 1998.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700030009x

M. Carthy and P. , A proposal to establish a reference collection of humic materials for interlaboratory comparisons, Geoderma, vol.16, pp.179-181, 1976.

R. Malcolm and P. Maccarthy, Quantitative evaluation of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins used in tandem for removing organic solutes from water, Environment International, vol.18, issue.6, pp.597-607, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0160-4120(92)90027-2

M. Li, G. X. Wang, J. Lin, and . Sh, Calcium Stimulates the Adaptation of Cultured Liquorice Cells to PEG-Induced Water Stress, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.51, issue.4, pp.518-524, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:RUPP.0000035746.98168.c6

M. Mamo, J. F. Moncrief, C. J. Rosen, and T. R. Halbach, The Effect Of Municipal Solid Waste Compost Application On Soil Water and Water Stress in Irrigated Corn, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.8, issue.3, pp.236-246, 2000.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1979.00472425000800030024x

T. Manios, D. Laux, V. Manios, and E. I. Stentiford, Cattail Plant Biomass as a Bulking Agent in Sewage Sludge Composting; Effect of the Compost On Plant Growth, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.27, issue.3, pp.210-219, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-8809(89)90107-2

R. Mata-gonzález, R. E. Sosebee, and C. Wan, Physiological impacts of biosolids application in desert grasses, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.48, issue.2, pp.139-148, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0098-8472(02)00019-9

B. Maziya-dixon, J. G. Kling, A. Menkir, and A. Dixon, Genetic Variation in Total Carotene, Iron, and Zinc Contents of Maize and Cassava Genotypes, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol.47, issue.4, pp.419-422, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1993.tb03117.x

S. E. Mbulugwe and G. R. Kassenga, Feasibility and strategies for anaerobic digestion of solid waste for energy production in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol.42, issue.2, pp.183-203, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.02.010

M. B. Mc-bride, Reactions controlling heavy metals solubility in soils, Adv. Soil Sci, vol.10, pp.1-56, 1989.

B. D. Meek, The Effect of Large Applications of Manure on Movement of Nitrate and Carbon in an Irrigated Desert Soil1, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.3, issue.3, pp.253-258, 1974.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1974.00472425000300030014x

J. Miller, J. Hassett, and D. E. Koeppe, Interactions of Lead and Cadmium on Metal Uptake and Growth of Corn Plants1, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.6, issue.1, pp.18-20, 1977.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1977.00472425000600010005x

F. C. Miller, E. R. Harper, and B. J. Macaulay, Field examination of temperature and oxygen relationships in mushroom composting stacks dash consideration of stack oxygenation based on utilisation and supply, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol.29, issue.5, pp.741-750
DOI : 10.1071/EA9890741

N. Millot, Les lixiviats de décharges contrôlées. Caractérisation analytique et études des filières de traitement, Thèse de doctorat, p.180, 1986.

M. Mkhabela and P. R. Warman, The influence of municipal solid waste compost on yield, soil phosphorus availability and uptake by two vegetable crops grown in a Pugwash sandy loam soil in Nova Scotia, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.106, issue.1, pp.57-67, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2004.07.014

R. Mohee, Assessing the recovery potential of solid waste in Mauritius. resour. conserv. recy, pp.33-43, 2002.

A. Mollier, Croissance racinaire du ma?s (Zea mays L.) sous déficience en phosphore. Etudes expérimentales, modélisation, Thèse de doctorat, 0200.

P. Monneveux and M. Nemmar, Contribution à l'étude de la résistance à la sécheresse chez le blé tendre (T. aestivum L.) et le blé dur (T. durum Desf) Etude de l, pp.583-590, 1986.

K. D. Montagu and K. C. Woo, Recovery of tree photosynthetic capacity from seasonal drought in the wet???dry tropics: the role of phyllode and canopy processes in Acacia auriculiformis, Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.26, issue.2, pp.135-145, 1999.
DOI : 10.1071/PP98034

B. Mouria, A. Ouazzani-touhami, and A. Douira, Valorisation agronomique du compost et de ses extraits sur la culture de la tomate, Rev. Ivoir. Sci. Technol, vol.16, pp.165-190, 2010.

J. L. Morel, Contribution à l'étude des transferts de métaux lourds dans le système solplante : le rôle des mucilages racinaires, Thèse de Doctorat, p.176, 1985.

J. L. Morel, Dynamique des éléments traces dans les sols : mobilité et transfert vers les eaux souterraines et les plantes. Contamination des sols par les éléments en traces : les risques et leur gestion, Académie des sciences, Rapport, vol.42, pp.67-126, 1998.

S. Motoaki, M. Narusaka, A. Hiroshi, C. Kasuga, K. Yamaguchi-shinozaki et al., Monitoring the expression pattern de 1300 Arabidopsis genes under drought and cold stresses by using a full-length cDNA microarray, Plant Cell, vol.13, pp.61-73, 2001.

S. A. Movahedi and H. F. Cook, Influence of municipal compost on temperature, water, nutrient status and the yield of maize in temperate soil. Soil Use manage, pp.215-221, 2010.

G. L. Mullins, D. C. Martens, W. P. Miller, E. T. Kornegay, and D. L. Hallock, Copper Availability, Form, and Mobility in Soils from Three Annual Copper-Enriched Hog Manure Applications1, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.11, issue.2, pp.316-320, 1982.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1982.00472425001100020033x

J. Murphy and J. P. Riley, A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.27, pp.31-36, 1962.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5

A. Muscolo, F. Bovolo, F. Gionfriddo, and S. Nardi, Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.31, issue.9, pp.1303-1311, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00049-8

M. Mustin, Le compost: gestion de la matière organique, Eds François Dubusc, p.954, 1987.

L. Mrabet, D. Belghyti, A. Loukili, and B. Attarassi, Etude de l'effet du compost des déchets ménagers sur l'amélioration du rendement du maïs et de laitue, Afr. Sci, vol.7, issue.2, pp.74-84, 2011.

R. S. Mylavarapu and G. M. Zinati, Improvement of soil properties using compost for optimum parsley production in sandy soils, Scientia Horticulturae, vol.120, issue.3, pp.426-430, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scienta.2008.11.038

E. K. Nambiar, The effects of drying of the topsoil and of micronutrients in the subsoil on micronutrient uptake by an intermittently defoliated ryegrass, Plant and Soil, vol.3, issue.1, pp.185-193, 1977.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00693125

J. A. Napier, J. M. Chapman, and M. Black, Calcium-dependent induction of novel proteins by abscisic acid in wheat aleurone tissue of different developmental stages, Planta, vol.86, issue.2, pp.156-164, 1989.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00393685

S. Nardi, D. Pizzeghello, A. Muscolo, A. Vianello, D. Agnola et al., Biological activity of humic substances. Humic Substances in Terrestrial Ecosystems, pp.1361-1406, 1996.

M. M. Nuruddin, C. A. Madramootoo, and G. T. Dodds, Effect of water stress at different growth stages on greenhouse tomato yield and quality, Hort. Sci, vol.38, issue.7, pp.1389-1393, 2003.

A. B. Oliveira, C. F. Moura, E. Gomes-filho, C. A. Marco, L. Urban et al., The Impact of Organic Farming on Quality of Tomatoes Is Associated to Increased Oxidative Stress during Fruit Development, PLoS ONE, vol.67, issue.9, pp.1-6, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0056354.t002

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01332379

P. Ozer, M. Erpicum, G. Demarée, and M. Vandiepenbeeck, The Sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s, Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol.42, issue.3, pp.489-92, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199809)18:11<1261::AID-JOC302>3.0.CO;2-Z

A. Ouatmane, V. D-'orazio, M. Hafidi, and N. Senesi, Chemical and Physicochemical Characterization Of Humic Acid-Like Materials From Composts, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.152, issue.4, pp.39-46, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-044481516-3/50015-3

M. N. Pagliai, N. Vignozzi, and S. Pellegrini, Soil structure and the effect of management practices, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.79, issue.2, pp.131-143, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.still.2004.07.002

J. D. Pakulski, R. Benner, R. Amon, E. B. Withledge, and T. , Community metabolism and nutrient cycling in the Mississipi river plume: Evidence for intense nitrification at intermediates salinities, pp.207-218, 1995.

A. Parodi, G. Feuillade-cathalifaud, V. Pallier, and A. A. Mansour, Optimization of municipal solid waste leaching test procedure: Assessment of the part of hydrosoluble organic compounds, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.186, issue.2-3, pp.991-998, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.090

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00654686

S. K. Patel, F. M. Rhoads, E. A. Hanlon, and R. D. Barnett, Potassium and magnesium uptake by wheat and soybean roots as influenced by fertilizer rate, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal, vol.24, pp.13-14, 1993.

R. B. Patil, Role of potassium humate on growth and yield of soybean and black gram, Int. J. Pharm. Bios, vol.2, issue.1, pp.242-246, 2011.

F. Pedra, A. Polo, A. Ribeiro, and H. Domingues, Effects of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on mineralization of soil organic matter, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.39, issue.6, pp.1375-1382, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.12.014

M. A. Pervez, C. M. Ayub, H. A. Khan, M. A. Shahid, and I. Ashraf, Effect of drought stress on growth, yield and seed quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). Pak, J. Agric. Sci, vol.46, pp.174-178, 2009.

G. Petruzzelli, Recycling wastes in agriculture: heavy metal bioavailability, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.27, issue.1-4, pp.493-503, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-8809(89)90110-2

A. T. Pigozzo, E. Lenzi, J. L. Junior, C. Scapin, D. Costa et al., Transition metal rates in latosol twice treated with sewage sludge, Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol.35, issue.199, pp.515-526, 2006.
DOI : 10.1590/S1516-89132000000200003

R. Pinton, C. Cesco, G. Lacoletti, S. Astolf, and Z. Varanini, Modulation of nitrate NO 3 ? by water-extractable humic substances: involvement of root plasma membrane H + ATPase, Plant and Soil, vol.215, issue.2, pp.155-161, 1999.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1004752531903

A. Pirzad, R. Darvishzadeh, I. Bernousi, A. Hassani, and N. Sivritepe, Influence of Water Deficit on Iron and Zinc Uptake by Matricaria chamomilla L., Chilean journal of agricultural research, vol.72, issue.2, pp.232-236, 2012.
DOI : 10.4067/S0718-58392012000200011

A. Pirzad, M. R. Shakiba, S. Zehtab-salmasi, S. A. Mohammadi, R. Darvishzadeh et al., Effect of water stress on leaf relative water content, chlorophyll, proline and soluble carbohydrates in Matricaria chamomilla L, J. Med. Plants Res, vol.5, issue.12, pp.2483-2488, 2011.

M. Pitman, Uptake and Transport of Ions in Barley Seedlings III. Correlation Between Transport to the Shoot and Relative Growth Rate, Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, vol.25, issue.5, pp.905-919, 1972.
DOI : 10.1071/BI9720905

G. Porter, J. Bajita-locke, N. Hue, and S. Strand, Manganese Solubility and Phytotoxicity Affected by Soil Moisture, Oxygen Levels, and Green Manure Additions, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol.111, issue.1-2, pp.99-116, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/00103628409367568

R. Poss, J. C. Fardeau, and H. Saragoni, Sustainable agriculture in the tropics: the case of potassium under maize cropping in Togo, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol.31, issue.3, pp.205-213, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-4682-4_1

B. Puyuelo, T. Gea, and A. Sanchez, A new control strategy for the composting process based on the oxygen uptake rate, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol.165, issue.1, pp.161-169, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cej.2010.09.011

G. Unmar and R. Mohee, Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality, Bioresource Technology, vol.99, issue.15, pp.6738-6744, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.016

M. A. Rabbani, K. Maruyama, H. Abe, M. A. Khan, K. Katsura et al., Monitoring Expression Profiles of Rice Genes under Cold, Drought, and High-Salinity Stresses and Abscisic Acid Application Using cDNA Microarray and RNA Gel-Blot Analyses, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.133, issue.4, pp.1755-1767, 2003.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.103.025742

A. Rabia, S. Faiza, and A. A. Tasneem, Association of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes with different composts, Pak. J. Bot, vol.39, issue.6, pp.2141-2151, 2007.

A. Rabo and O. Guene, Consultation locale sur la gestion des déchets biomédicaux à Ouagadougou, p.27, 1998.

F. Ramade, Dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences de l'eau: biogéochimie et écologie des eaux continentales et littorales, pp.354-356, 1998.

V. K. Rai, G. Singh, P. S. Thakur, and S. Banyal, Protein and amino-acid relationship during water stress in relation to drought resistance, Plant Physiol. Biochem, vol.10, p.161, 1983.

M. Raviv, S. Medina, A. Krasnovsky, and H. Ziada, Organic Matter and Nitrogen Conservation in Manure Compost for Organic Agriculture, Compost Science & Utilization, vol.469, issue.1, pp.6-10, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00319-X

E. Rendek, G. Ducom, and P. Germain, Assessment of MSWI bottom ash organic carbon behavior: A biophysicochemical approach, Chemosphere, vol.67, issue.8, pp.67-1582, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.11.054

M. Reymond, B. Muller, A. Leonardi, A. Charcosset, and F. Tardieu, Combining Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis and an Ecophysiological Model to Analyze the Genetic Variability of the Responses of Maize Leaf Growth to Temperature and Water Deficit, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.131, issue.2, pp.664-675, 2003.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.013839

L. Rizhsky, H. Liang, J. Shuman, V. Shulaer, S. Davletova et al., When Defense Pathways Collide. The Response of Arabidopsis to a Combination of Drought and Heat Stress, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.134, issue.4, pp.1683-1693, 2004.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.103.033431

M. Robelin, Contribution à l'étude du comportement du maïs-grain via-à-vis de la sécheresse. Journées internationales de l'irrigation, pp.69-76, 1963.

M. Sager and J. Hoesch, Macro-and microelement levels in cereals grown in lower Austria, 2005.

A. Said, H. A. Ahl, and M. S. Hussein, Effect of water stress and potassium humate on the productivity of oregano plant using saline and fresh water irrigation, Ozean J. Apl. Sci, vol.3, issue.1, pp.125-141, 2010.

D. Said-pullicino and G. Gigliotti, Oxidative biodegradation of dissolved organic matter during composting, Chemosphere, vol.68, issue.6, pp.1030-1040, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.02.012

N. Samarah, R. Mullen, and S. Cianzio, Size Distribution and Mineral Nutrients of Soybean Seeds in Response to Drought Stress, Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol.21, issue.5, pp.815-835, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/01904169609365163

. Sandec, Decentalised Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries; pp 61-62 www.sandec.ch, 2006.

H. Saragoni, R. Poss, J. Marquette, and E. Latrille, Fertilisation et succession des cultures vivrières au sud du Togo: synthèse d'une expérimentation de longue durée sur terres de barre, Agron.Trop, vol.28, pp.1049-1069, 1992.

H. Sawadogo, L. Bock, D. Lacroix, and N. P. Zombre, Restauration des potentialités des sols dégradés à l'aide du Zaï et du compost dans le Yatenga (Burkina-Faso), BASE, issue.3, pp.12-279, 2008.

G. Q. Shar, T. G. Kazi, F. A. Shah, A. H. Shar, and F. M. Soomro, Variable uptake and accumulation of essential and heavy metals in maize (Zea mays L.) grains of six maize varieties, Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci, vol.5, pp.117-121, 2011.

Z. H. Shao, P. J. He, D. Q. Zhang, and L. M. Shao, Characterization of water-extractable organic matter during the biostabilization of municipal solid waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.164, issue.2-3, pp.1191-1187, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.035

J. Schoeneau, Impacts of repeated manure additions on soil fertility, Proceedings of the Soils and Crops, pp.95-100, 2005.

K. N. Segbeaya, Evaluation de l'impact des déchets ménagers de la ville de Kara (Togo) sur la qualité de la rivière Kara, Thèse de Doctorat de l, p.209, 2012.

K. N. Segbeaya, G. Feuillade-cathalifaud, G. Baba, E. K. Koledzi, V. Pallier et al., How the origin of fresh household waste affects its ability to be biodegraded: An assessment using basic tools and its application to the city of Kara in Togo, Waste Management, vol.32, issue.12, pp.2511-2517, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.07.016

T. Senaratana and B. D. Kersi, Characterization of Solute Efflux from Dehydration Injured Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) Seeds, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.72, issue.4, pp.911-914, 1983.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.72.4.911

C. Serra-wittling, Valorisation de composts d'ordures ménagères en protection des cultures: Influence de l'apport de composts sur le développement des maladies d'origine tellurique et le comportement de pesticides dans un sol, p.220, 1995.

B. Singh and G. Singh, Influence of soil water regime on nutrient mobility and uptake by Dalbergia sissoo seedlings, Tropical Ecology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.337-340, 2004.

J. M. Sogbedji, . M. Van-es-'h, and K. L. Agbeko, Cover Cropping and Nutrient Management Strategies for Maize Production in Western Africa, Agronomy Journal, vol.98, issue.4, pp.883-889, 2006.
DOI : 10.2134/agronj2005.0025

D. Soltner, Les bases de la production végétale. Tome I. le sol et son amélioration, Collection Sciences et techniques agricoles, p.472, 2003.

S. G. Sommer and P. Dahl, Nutrient and Carbon Balance during the Composting of Deep Litter, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol.74, issue.2, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/jaer.1999.0446

B. Soudi, Le compostage des déchets de culture sous serre et du fumier, p.89, 2009.

B. Souhilia and A. Fatiha, Réponses physiologiques des plants d'Argania spinona (L.) Skeets soumis à un déficit hydrique édaphique, Sécheresse, vol.20, issue.3, pp.296-302, 2009.

M. Soumare, E. Tack, and M. Verloo, Characterisation of Malian and Belgian solid waste composts with respect to fertility and suitability for land application, Waste Management, vol.23, issue.6, pp.517-522, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0956-053X(03)00067-9

T. Sterckeman, Origine et devenir des éléments en trace dans le système Sol-Plante, 2008.

C. R. Stewart, F. Boggess, D. Aspinall, and I. G. Paleg, Inhibition of Proline Oxidation by Water Stress, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.59, issue.5, pp.930-932, 1977.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.59.5.930

C. R. Stewart and J. A. Lee, The role of proline accumulation in halophytes, Planta, vol.242, issue.3, pp.279-289, 1974.
DOI : 10.1038/236188a0

J. J. Stoorvogel, E. M. Smaling, and B. H. Jansen, Calculating soil nutrient balances in Africa at different scales, Fertilizer Research, vol.26, issue.3, pp.225-235, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00750641

E. Tahri, A. Belabed, and K. Sadki, Effet d'un stress osmotique sur l'accumulation de proline, de chlorophylle et des ARNm codant pour la glutamine synthétase chez trois variétés de blé dur (Triticum durum) Bulletin de l'Institut Scientifique, pp.81-87, 1998.

M. Tal and I. Rosenthal, Salt tolerance in Simmondria chenensis water balance and accumulation of chloride sodium and proline under low and high salinity, Ann. Bot, vol.34, pp.701-708, 1979.

K. H. Tan, Humic matter in soil and the environment principles and controversies, p.408, 2003.

V. C. Tanguilig, E. B. Yambao, J. C. O-'toole, and S. K. De-datta, Water stress effects on leaf elongation, leaf water potential, transpiration, and nutrient uptake of rice, maize, and soybean, Plant and Soil, vol.60, issue.2, pp.155-168, 1987.
DOI : 10.2134/agronj1981.00021962007300060039x

K. A. Tartoura, Alleviation of oxidative stress induced by drought trough application of compost in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Plants, American-Eurasian J. Agric. Envir. Sci, vol.9, issue.2, pp.208-216, 2010.

G. Tyler and T. Olsson, Concentrations of 60 elements in the soil solution as related to the soil acidity, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.53, issue.1, pp.151-165, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7061(99)00080-4

N. G. Tzortzakis and C. D. Economakis, Impacts of the substrate medium on tomato yield and fruit quality in soilless cultivation, Hort. Sci, vol.35, issue.2, pp.83-89, 2008.

R. Vaca, J. Lugo, R. Martínez, M. V. Esteller, and H. Zavaleta, Effects of sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost amendment on soil properties and zea mays l. plants (heavy metals, quality and productivity), Rev. Int. Contam. Ambie, vol.27, issue.4, pp.303-311, 2011.

D. Vaughan, R. E. Malcom, and B. J. Ord, Influence of humic substances on biochemical process in plants. Soil Organic matter and biological Activity Nijhdef, pp.77-108, 1985.

A. Veeken, K. Nierop, V. D. Wilde, and B. Hamelers, Characterisation of NaOH-extracted humic acids during composting of a biowaste, Bioresource Technology, vol.72, issue.1, pp.33-41, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-8524(99)90096-2

S. L. Vieira, J. A. Penz, E. M. Le-boute, and J. Corteline, A Nutritional Evaluation of a High Fiber Sunflower Meal, The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol.1, issue.4, pp.382-388, 1992.
DOI : 10.1093/japr/1.4.382

T. J. Vyn and M. Tollenaar, Changes in chemical and physical quality parameters of maize grain during three decades of yield improvement, Field Crops Research, vol.59, issue.2, pp.135-140, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00114-2

A. Walker, M. Jurado-exposito, G. D. Bending, and V. J. Smith, Spatial variability in the degradation rate of isoproturon in soil, Environmental Pollution, vol.111, issue.3, pp.407-415, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00092-0

W. X. Wang, P. Vinocur, and A. Altman, Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance, Planta, vol.218, issue.1, pp.1-4, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00425-003-1105-5

A. S. Wang, J. S. Angle, R. L. Chaney, T. A. Delorme, and R. D. Reeves, Soil pH Effects on Uptake of Cd and Zn by Thlaspi caerulescens, Plant and Soil, vol.249, issue.1-2, pp.325-337, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s11104-005-4642-9

X. Wei, M. Hao, and W. Gale, Changes in soil properties and the availability of soil micronutrients after 18 years of cropping and fertilization, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.91, issue.1-2, pp.120-130, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.still.2005.11.009

R. Wolkowski, Nitrogen Management Considerations for Landspreading Municipal Solid Waste Compost, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.32, issue.5, pp.1844-1850, 2003.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq2003.1844

J. W. Wong, G. X. Li, and M. H. Wong, The growth of Brassica chinensis in heavy-metal-contaminated sewage sludge compost from Hong Kong, Bioresource Technology, vol.58, issue.3, pp.309-313, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-8524(96)00121-6

I. L. Woodbury, Applying compost to crops Utilization of manure compost for organic farming in Hong-Kong, Biocycle Bioresour. Technol, vol.32, issue.67, pp.70-72, 1992.

L. Wu, L. Q. Ma, and G. A. Martinez, Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Stability and Maturity of Biosolids Compost, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.29, issue.2, pp.424-429, 2000.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq2000.00472425002900020008x

Y. Xia, Z. He, P. J. Stoffella, D. V. Calvert, M. Zhang et al., Effect of compost amendment on heavy metals, nitrogen and phosphorus in peat-based container medium, Pedosphere, issue.6, pp.15-792, 2005.

K. Yamaguchi-shinozaki, A Novel cis-Acting Element in an Arabidopsis Gene Is Involved in Responsiveness to Drought, Low-Temperature, or High-Salt Stress, THE PLANT CELL ONLINE, vol.6, issue.2, pp.251-264, 1994.
DOI : 10.1105/tpc.6.2.251

L. Ye, Caractérisation des déchets urbains solides utilisables en agriculture urbaine et périurbaine. Cas de Bobo-Dioulasso, p.48, 2007.

Y. A. Yobouet, K. Adouby, A. Trokourey, and B. Yao, Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc speciation in contaminated soils, Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol, vol.2, issue.5, pp.802-812, 2010.

S. Yochida, The physiology of silicon in rice. Technical bulletin N°25, Food Fertilization Technology Center, p.27, 1975.

X. Y. Yu, G. Ying, and R. S. Kookana, Reduced plant uptake of pesticides with biochar additions to soil, Chemosphere, vol.76, issue.5, pp.665-675, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.04.001

X. Yin, M. Hayes, M. A. Mcclure, and H. J. Savoy, Assessment of plant biomass and nitrogen nutrition with plant height in early-to mid-season corn, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.94, issue.13, pp.92-2611, 2012.
DOI : 10.2134/agronj2002.0435

M. Zaïri, M. Ferchichi, A. Ismail, M. Jenayeh, and H. Hammami, Rehabilitation of El Yahoudia dumping site, Tunisia, Waste Management, vol.24, issue.10, pp.1023-1034, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wasman.2004.07.002

D. Zekri, A. Lehout, N. Souilah, and D. Alatou, Etude des variations thermiques saisonnières dans les régions semi-arides, Laboratoire de développement et valorisation des ressources phytogénétiques, p.16, 2007.

C. Zeinseilmeier, B. R. Jeong, J. Boyer, and S. , Starch and the Control of Kernel Number in Maize at Low Water Potentials, Plant Physiology, vol.121, issue.1, pp.25-36, 1999.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.121.1.25

Z. J. Zhu, G. Q. Wei, J. Li, Q. Q. Qian, and J. Q. Yu, Silicon alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzymes activity in leaves of salt-stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), Plant Science, vol.167, issue.3, pp.527-533, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.04.020

S. Zmora-nahum, O. Markovitch, J. Tarchitzky, and Y. Chen, Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a parameter of compost maturity, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.37, issue.11, pp.2109-2116, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.03.013

G. Zomboudré, G. Zombré, M. Ouedraogo, S. Guinko, H. Macauley et al., Réponse physiologique et productivité des cultures dans un système agroforestier traditionnel: cas du maïs, Zea mays L.) associé au karité (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) dans la zone Est du Burkina Faso, pp.75-85, 2005.

A. A. Zorpas, D. Arapglou, and P. Karlis, Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production, Waste Management, vol.23, issue.1, pp.27-35, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00042-9

F. Zuccooni, M. Forte, A. Monaco, D. Bertoldi, and M. , Biological evaluation of compost maturity, Biocycle, vol.22, issue.2, pp.27-29, 1981.