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Circulation des Chlamydiaceae en filières avicoles, exposition des professionnels et étude de la survie de Chlamydia psittaci

Virginie Hulin 1 
1 UZB - Unité Zoonoses Bactériennes
Laboratoire de santé animale, sites de Maisons-Alfort et de Dozulé
Abstract : Avian chlamydiosis is a factor of economic loss to the poultry industry as well as a risk for zoonotic transmission to human. Chlamydia psittaci is the primary avian chlamydial pathogen with zoonotic potential. Although being mainly asymptomatic in birds, it can cause a disease called “psittacosis” in humans, with severe atypical pneumonia that leads to death in the most severe cases. Persons affected are mainly those whose occupations put them at risk of exposure, and a number of recent reports in France have confirmed that most of the human cases seemed to be linked to poultry, especially mule ducks. Currently there is evidence suggesting that avian chlamydiosis in poultry involves a new chlamydial agent, namely C. gallinacea. In order to evaluate the presence of Chlamydiaceae in poultry and the exposure of workers, we conducted four studies in the poultry industries, in duck hatchery, breeding farms and slauhgterhouse, as well as a studie in two poultry slaughterhouses including samples from voluntary workers. Results showed an important asymptomatic carriage of C. psittaci by mule ducks and a real, invisible and unpredictable exposure of workers. The species C. gallinacea was really prevalent in poultry othe than ducks and we still ignore its impact on human. Contamination of animals on farm seems to be mainly made via the environment. In vitro studies have been done to examine the survival of C. psittaci as a function of temperature in a non-nutritiv middle and showed that viable bacteria were still detectable after two months. Finally, the possible interactions between C. psittaci and an amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii, were studied and seem to show that the bacteria was able to enter the amoeba but we still ignore if it can survive or not
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Virginie Hulin. Circulation des Chlamydiaceae en filières avicoles, exposition des professionnels et étude de la survie de Chlamydia psittaci. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1016⟩. ⟨tel-01624350⟩

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