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Etude des mécanismes de régulation du métabolisme secondaire chez Botrytis cinerea.

Abstract : Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic polyphagous fungus able to induce the gray mold disease on hundreds of plant species. The resulting losses are important worldwide notably on economically important crops such as tomato, strawberry or grapevine. Among the virulence factors identified in B. cinerea stand two non-host specific toxins: the sesquiterpene botrydial and the polyketide botcinic acid. Although their redundant role in necrotrophy has been shown, the mechanisms governing the clusters responsible for their synthesis (respectively BOT and BOA) remain unknown. In this context, the aim of my PhD project was to characterize the different mechanisms that regulate secondary metabolism in B. cinerea. I particularly focused on BOT and BOA clusters as well as on a third one (PKS7) which, according to the phenotype of an insertion-based mutant (T-DNA), could be involved in necrotrophy. Thanks to the newly assembled genome of the B05.10 wild type strain, a candidate gene encoding a putative transcription factor (TF) could be identified near the BOT cluster. The characterization of this gene allowed pointing out the major role of the protein (BcBot6) in the activation of Bcbot genes and in the subsequent botrydial production. Similarly, the characterization of Bcboa13, a putative TF-encoding gene present into the BOA cluster, allowed demonstrating the positive regulatory role of BcBoa13 on Bcboa genes. Unlike the BOT and BOA clusters, the PKS7 one does not contain any putative TF-encoding gene. In order to confirm the role of the putative metabolite produced by this cluster and to identify its chemical structure, the inactivation of the PKS-NRPS key enzyme-encoding gene (Bcpks7) was conducted and metabolic analyses were initiated. Finally, the presence of many RIP(Repeat-Induced Point mutations)-inactivated transposons within BOT and BOA clusters as well as the subtelomeric location of BOA and PKS7 clusters raised our interest about the role of chromatin structure on those clusters regulation. In this context, three mutants inactivated into putative chromatin modifiers encoding-genes (the histone methyltransferases BcDim-5 and BcKmt6 and the heterochromatin protein BcHp1) were generated. The expression analysis of the key genes of the BOT, BOA and PKS clusters suggests different chromatin-based mechanisms that intervene for the BOT and BOA cluster on one side and on the PKS7 cluster on another. Altogether, the results generated during this PhD project are a major contribution to the comprehension of pathway-specific as well as chromatin-based mechanisms that regulate the production of necrotrophy-involved phytotoxins by B. cinerea.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 14, 2018 - 12:46:09 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01756394, version 2

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Antoine Porquier. Etude des mécanismes de régulation du métabolisme secondaire chez Botrytis cinerea.. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS480⟩. ⟨tel-01756394v2⟩

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