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Fucoïdanes extraits de l'algue brune ascophyllum nodosum : effets pro-angiogéniques in vitro et régénération de valves pulmonaires acellularisées

Abstract : Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides carrying various biological activities comparable to endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).Their use as therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases treatment is considered. The structural heterogeneity linked to their natural diversity and to the extraction and purification methods induce variation in their physico-chemical properties and biological activities. The aim of this study is first to etablish a structure-function study of fucoidans extracted from the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on their in vitro pro-angiogenic effects (cell migration and vascular network formation by human endothelial cells, HUVECs) and the role of the endogenous GAGs ; and the study of the regenerative potential of the application of a biofilm of fucoidan/VEGF on acellular porcine heart valves. In the first part, our results show the fractionated low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF, 4900 g/mol) induces higher pro-angiogenic effects than medium molecular weight fucoidan (MMWF, 26700 g/mol) on HUVECs. LMWF kept a pro-angiogenic potential with GAG-free HUVECs and is mainly endocyted in a clathrin-dependant pathway in which GAGs could be partially involved. In our second study, our data demonstrated that the application of the biofilm fucoidan/VEGF on acellular porcine pulmonary valves induce antithrombotic potential and allow the adhesion and survival of HUVECs. This work suggest that this method allows re-endothelialization of acellular heart valve and could be used to develop self-regenerative valve bioprosthesis.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02426177, version 1

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Nicolas Marinval. Fucoïdanes extraits de l'algue brune ascophyllum nodosum : effets pro-angiogéniques in vitro et régénération de valves pulmonaires acellularisées. Ingénierie biomédicale. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCD014⟩. ⟨tel-02426177⟩

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