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Cinétique des effecteurs immunologiques impliqués dans la protection contre le virus Herpès simplex type 1 (HSV1) après primo-infection par une autre souche non neurovirulente : vers un modèle vaccinal

Abstract : In humans, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), primary infection occurs in the oral mucocutaneous tissues. Virions replicated here penetrate sensitive neuronal axons, migrate to both trigeminal ganglion (TG) where it established a lifelong latency. Reactivations of HSV-1 in the TG neurons induce clinical recurrences in the connected peripheral tissues. This process is involved in herpes simplex keratitis (HSK), a condition that, strikingly, occurs almost exclusively in the same eye for a given patient. Based on an experimental oro-ocular (OO) model of HSV-1 infection, that recapitulates most of these human clinical features, we previously demonstrated that a virus inoculation on one side of the mouth, leads to viral replication in the lip, followed by HSK. Virus concomitantly disseminates to both TG, but reactivation only occurs in the TG ipsilateral to the inoculation site. We also observed that after a primary inoculation with a non-neurovirulent strain of HSV-1 in one lip, mice are protected against both acute phase disease and reactivation after a superinfection with a fully virulent wild-type strain of HSV-1 in the contralateral lip.In order to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in this state of protection, we combined high resolution flow cytometry and bead-based immunoassays, to quantify hematopoietic subsets and inflammatory chemokines in the site of inoculation and in the TG. We demonstrated that after a single inoculation with the wild-type strain, a delayed immune infiltrate, boasting more proinflammatory subsets, occurred in the lip and persisted in the TG. In contrast, the immune infiltrate occurred earlier in the superinfected lip and ipsilateral TG, with less inflammatory chemokines but more adaptive immune subsets. Moreover, cellular infiltrate resolved faster, correlating with nullification of inflammatory chemokines locally. These data show that immune response kinetics influence the development of natural immunity to HSV-1, and can be harnessed to protect against disease and reactivations.
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Antoine Rousseau. Cinétique des effecteurs immunologiques impliqués dans la protection contre le virus Herpès simplex type 1 (HSV1) après primo-infection par une autre souche non neurovirulente : vers un modèle vaccinal. Virologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS339⟩. ⟨tel-02885752⟩

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