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Enseignement du secourisme en France : vers une meilleure prise en compte des facteurs humains et des stratégies d’apprentissage

Abstract : Improving the survival of patients suffering from cardiac arrest is a public health issue. Among the many factors that could contribute to improving the survival rate, training the general public in first aid techniques is essential. The low proportion of the French population trained and up to date with the training reflects the low effectiveness of current policies to achieve widespread training. As a consequence of this situation, only 30% of witnesses of a cardiac arrest start a cardiac massage.Based on the results of our research during the exploratory phase of this work, we hypothesize that, given the difficulty of making a decision in a stressful situation, the long first aid training courses currently provided to the general public are no more effective than a targeted initiation provided that the witness benefits, in accordance with the recommendations, from assistance by the emergency call center operator.In order to validate our hypothesis, we conducted an experimental study, using a simulation manikin, comparing the effectiveness of four educational modalities, each applied to a cohort of health students (PSC1 diploma training/two-hour initiation/two-hour initiation/non-trained cohort).The primary endpoint was the proportion of volunteers performing effective chest compressions. No statistical difference was found between the graduated and untrained groups or with the groups that received the initiation. Of the students who did not receive assistance (forgot to call for help), none performed effective chest compressions. However, training of at least two consecutive hours shows an advantage in the rapidity of implementation of the gestures compared to no training.First aid training does not seem to be designed to provide competence, at most a "know-how". The current strategy, by not encouraging the updating of knowledge, does not allow the acquisition of a lasting knowledge. Even if learners benefit from experimentation on a manikin and interaction with the trainer, it is difficult for them to access the conceptualization through inferences that would allow knowledge to be anchored in the long term.Our work, which is based on an analysis of human factors, particularly in stressful situations, and on a pedagogical analysis, highlights the interest in developing short training courses for the general public, which are more easily generalized and repeatable. These short training courses, with a streamlined content, should be delivered by a wider panel of trainers. On the scale of the French population, the acquisition and maintenance of a basic knowledge of first aid concepts will only be possible through a modernization of the teaching strategy, taking into account human factors and learning strategies in relation to public health and prevention policy.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 8, 2022 - 11:38:17 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 4, 2022 - 3:23:27 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03635145, version 1

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Cédric Damm. Enseignement du secourisme en France : vers une meilleure prise en compte des facteurs humains et des stratégies d’apprentissage. Education. Normandie Université, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021NORMR109⟩. ⟨tel-03635145⟩

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