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Le rôle du commerce dans la croissance : une réflexion à partir de la France du XVIIIe siècle

Abstract : The aim of this PhD is to present a theoretical reflection on the role of trade in economic growth. This reflection is based on the study of a concrete example: 18th-century France. The first part studies domestic trade. The French productive structure is described in a first chapter. The second chapter rejects the Malthusian view of the French economy and shows, in contrast, that French growth depended on the gradual integration of the rural labour forces in the national exchange economy. The third chapter studies the role of intermediaries. It starts by describing their activities. Then it suggests a theoretical reflection on the means of these activities, by discussing especially the notion of transactional capital. Finally, the chapter constructs a formal model of the economy, putting intermediaries at the centre of the growth process. The second part studies the role of external trade. In the fourth chapter, all the sources existing on French external trade are enumerated. The chapter discusses their compatibility. Finally, it points out some characteristics of external trade. External trade is then treated as a proper sector of the economy. The fifth chapter studies the profits of the extra-European trade. It is based on the 400 different examples. It concludes that investment in extra-European trade was indeed advantageous compared to domestic investment. That is confirmed by the patterns of the capital and intermediaries movements during the century. The six chapter studies the importance of the extra-European sector. First, it puts its size in relation to the domestic economy. Second, it studies the effects of a transfer of its production factors in the domestic economy. Finally, it offers a formal endogenous growth model where the extra-European sector plays the role of a “heart of growth”. This model could be applied to other situations.
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Contributor : Guillaume Daudin Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, September 24, 2021 - 9:07:27 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 15, 2022 - 4:36:02 PM

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Guillaume Daudin. Le rôle du commerce dans la croissance : une réflexion à partir de la France du XVIIIe siècle. Economies et finances. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris I), 2001. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00586912v2⟩

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