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La confrontation entre les ressources en eau et les besoins en eau en moyenne montagne cristalline. Quelles contraintes, quels acteurs et quelles politiques de gestion ?

Abstract : The objective of this Doctorate was to put in adequacy water resources and water requirements on average crystalline mountain through the example of the Country of Gier, the Regional Natural reserve of Pilat and S.I.C.A.L.A. "Antenna of Tence ". This work was realized in a space of low mountain range. It corresponds so in the middle geographical in the strict sense as in a space lived by a society. From a quantitative point of view, the resource in water can amply satisfy needs. The resource in water is not exhausted. The pluviometry bound to a semi-mountain climate to mountain dweller is sufficient and the modes of consumption of the water are rather reasonable. However, considering the pedological and geologic characteristics and considering the environment, this resource in water must be retained to be able to feed the population with drinking water. This idea "to reserve" the resource germinated in mind of the administrators more than three hundred years ago. To build artificial restraints was thus a fundamental decision. If the balance needs / resources does not inspire the doom-watch, there were certain periods in our recent History where it was unbalanced. Since 1975, at least five major episodes of drought occurred. They called us by their occurrence. The consideration of the phenomenon of drought by the authorities led to us to think about the question of the risk. If the meteorological situations convenient to the occurrence of such episodes are known, who is today capable of predicting the extension and the intensity of such phenomena ? The socio-political answer in front of the drought is more and more sharp and close to the territory. It is treated on the scale of the pouring pond, the henceforth omnipresent notion. From a qualitative point of view, the estimation of the state of the resource would require an analysis more deepened to determine the causes of pollution. The urban society considered for a long time that streams were only the receptacle of its waste. It was necessary well to become aware, sometimes in a forced way, that Europe was on the march and required a certain quality of life in the environment. All the problems are not resolved even if numerous efforts were made. The contagion of grounds by the relatively extensive agriculture and by the ancestral exploitation of mines is a subject of current events. The contact of elements contaminated with the water stays another field to be exploited.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 22, 2012 - 1:40:23 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:49:27 PM
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Yohann Benmalek. La confrontation entre les ressources en eau et les besoins en eau en moyenne montagne cristalline. Quelles contraintes, quels acteurs et quelles politiques de gestion ?. Géographie. Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00672956⟩

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