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Flexibilités et hétérogéneités structurelles de biomolécules impliquées dans la transcription inverse du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine

Abstract : This thesis aims to probe the flexibility of NCp7 and Δ(-)PBS, two biomolecules involved in the second strand transfer of the HIV's reverse transcription. We brought to the front two original experimental methods. A new ultrafast fluorescence down-conversion setup has been built, suitable for biological chromophore investigations. The quenching dynamics of 2-aminopurine (2Ap), site-mutated at the positions 6, 8 and 10 of Δ(-)PBS loop, were completely resolved under a ps scale. For each location, 4 decay times, were highlighted. Further anisotropy measurements confirmed that the two < 5 ps components correspond to stacking interactions of 2Ap with neighbouring Guanines. The site-specific aspect of the stacking were supported by a significant increase of their relative amplitudes when 2Ap were cloesly located to the stem (position 10). The minor portion of conformations involved with ps to ns collisional quenching suggests a low exposure of 2Ap towards the solvent as well as a general restriction of the loop. The second method planned to investigate the effet of the zinc-folding on [35-50] NCp7's peptidic backbone, thanks to CID and LID. The CID-generated spectra of the bare peptide were explained by the mobile proton model, and an exhaustive tryptophan (Trp) fragmentation pattern was described, mainly due to a neighbouring Lysin effects. Only one LID-fragment has been identified upon 266 nm excitation, probably created through a pathway competing with the generation of Trp fragments by CID. The main aspects related to zinc-folding are a general enhancement of the fragmentation ratios related to Trp and a loss of specificity for the remaining mass spectra parts.Δ(-)PBS et NCp7 has been respectively investigated by ultrafast down-conversion spectroscopy and gas-phase spectrometry. The first method implies the use of a non invasive fluorescent probe, named 2 aminopurine (2Ap), site mutated in position 6, 8 et 10 of the Δ(-)PBS loop. Our time resolution allows to fully depict the local quenching dynamics and anisotropy decays. The component related to static and collisional has been solved, thus describing different stacking degrees as well as local restrictions. The effect of [35-50] NCp7 folding around its zinc atom has been studied by CID and 266 nm LID. The bare protein displays an interesting fragmentation pathway around its Tryptophan (Trp), enhanced with zinc complexation, at the cost of a loss of specificity for the remaining mass spectra parts. Only one LID fragment has been identified, its occurence has been interpreted.
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Thomas Gelot. Flexibilités et hétérogéneités structurelles de biomolécules impliquées dans la transcription inverse du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine. Sciences agricoles. Université de Strasbourg, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012STRAE018⟩. ⟨tel-00815389⟩

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