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Réalisation de couches minces nanocomposites par un procédé original couplant la pyrolyse laser et la pulvérisation magnétron : application aux cellules solaires tout silicium de troisième génération

Abstract : This work focuses on the synthesis of thin films composed of silicon nanoparticles (np- Si) embedded in a dielectric matrix for application as an active layer for the third generation solar cells. The technique used for the synthesis of np-Si is the laser pyrolysis. This technique allowed us to obtain 5 nm cristalline np -Si with a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the use of specific precursor gases (PH₃, B₂H₆) in the reaction mixture enables doping (n or p -type) of np -Si. Effective np -Si doping has been demonstrated by measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Films made of np-Si only, have been deposited in situ by creating a supersonic jet of gas containing the silicon particles. Optoelectronic characterization of these layers showed a strong quantum confinement effect in films, thus ensuring a significant widening of the gap of 1.12 eV silicon (for bulk silicon) to about 2 eV (np -Si); which is an essential prerequisite to achieve a silicon tandem cell. Resistivity measurements on these films have confirmed the dopants activity in the np -Si. For np -Si doped with phosphorus, a significant decrease of the resistivity of more than five orders of magnitude compared to the intrinsic np -Si was observed. Coupling between laser pyrolysis and magnetron sputtering through our original synthesis device proved to be perfectly suited for the elaboration of nanocomposite thin films np-Si/SiO₂. A diode-type behavior has been highlighted on a junction formed by the superposition of a nanocomposite layer (n-type) on a bulk silicon substrate (p-type ). Beyond the simple application to photovoltaics , the coupled process, widely used and optimized during this work could allow the production of a multitude of different nanostructured layers , since the chemical nature of the particles and the matrix can be chosen independently.
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Harold Kintz. Réalisation de couches minces nanocomposites par un procédé original couplant la pyrolyse laser et la pulvérisation magnétron : application aux cellules solaires tout silicium de troisième génération. Autre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112357⟩. ⟨tel-00958453⟩

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