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Contribution à l'étude de sols latéritiques du Sénégal et du Brésil

Abstract : This study is devoted to the gravelly lateritic soils used in many countries as foundation and base layers of road structures. In Senegal, road materials are selected according to the CEBTP 1972 rules, which were revised in 1980. Lateritic gravel grain size curves must lay between lower and upper limit curves before or after compaction. Additional conditions are put on CBR index, plasticity index and modified Proctor optimum. The researches presented in this report concern various aspects of the use of lateritic soils:- what is the influence of compaction at different energy levels on the fragmentation of solid particles and the changes in the grain-size curve? How can particle fragmentation be taken into account in the selection and classification of materials? What is the behaviour of lateritic gravels in road pavements once they have been compacted then submitted to traffic?- can a relation be found between CBR index and grain size curve and other geotechnical properties of the soil? Are correlations valid for all sites or only for a particular quarry?- what is the evolution of a gravelly lateritic soil when it is mixed with another material without fines to improve its plasticity and resistance?- since part of the research was made in Brazil, experimental procedures used in Brazil and Senegal, where French standards are used, are compared. The relevance of fragmentability and degradability coefficients, which are used in the classification for lateritic soils proposed by Rodriguez et al., to characterize the evolution of lateritic gravels was assessed by means of laboratory tests on samples from Lam-Lam quarry and samples of the same material taken from the base layer of two roads sections in Senegal. The degradability coefficient does not differentiate the materials and the coefficient of fragmentability seems to be a better parameter. The evolution of granular classes of laterites taken from two quarries in Senegal and two quarries in Brazil, which were submitted to CBR compaction, confirms the importance of the fragmentation of the bigger particles and the shift of grain size curves towards finer soils, but these changes depend on the nature of the tested laterites. As a consequence, the study of gravelly lateritic materials must still be done at the scale of a quarry. Multilinear regression techniques were applied to the prediction of CBR index of materials taken from two Senegalese quarries (40 samples from Sindia quarry and 46 from Dougar quarry). It was shown that acceptable approximations can be found for each quarry to calculate CBR index from grain size curves, on one side, and from the values of six parameters, which were deemed to influence the CBR index value: mass percentage of particles finer that 80µm (C0,08mm), curvature and extension coefficients of the grain size curve (CUL et CCL), plasticity index (IP) and Proctor characteristics (wOPM et ρdOPM). Nevertheless, the formula established for a given site cannot be used for predicting CBR index on another site. This confirms that analyses should be made at the scale of a quarry. Lithostabilisation of Lam-Lam and Sindia laterites by adding 30% and 10% of sand from KeurMassar quarry, which aimed at reducing the plasticity index of these laterites, had the expected effect on plasticity, while conforming to granularity criteria. But the addition of sand on CBR index had contradicting effects, which should be further studied: decrease of CBR index for Lam-Lam laterite and increase of CBR index for Sindia laterite. The comparison of French and Brazilian standards showed that, despite slightly differing procedures, the results are globally equivalent. The biggest difference concerns CBR index, which is determined using different compaction energies and yields smaller values in Brazil. But the conditions put on materials are adapted to these values
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Massamba Ndiaye. Contribution à l'étude de sols latéritiques du Sénégal et du Brésil. Autre. Université Paris-Est; Université Cheikh Anta Diop (Dakar), 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1133⟩. ⟨tel-00977354⟩

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