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Intérêt du macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum pour la détection de contaminants dans l'environnement

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the interest of a submerged aquatic macrophyte, Myriophyllum alterniflorum for the detection of contaminants in the environment. In situ studies were conducted over 28 days in five aquatic environments, affected by different levels of anthropogenic pressure, during three field seasons (spring 2015, autumn 2015 and spring 2016), to determine whether the accumulation of contaminants in the plant and whether biomarkers can be used to detect the presence of contaminants in water. The accumulation of contaminants over time was correlated with the levels of contaminants in the water; the influence of the duration of exposure has been studied. In all three campaigns, biomarker response, MDA content, and nitrate reductase activity were correlated with contaminant levels in water and in the plant; however, the influence of the duration of exposure on the evolution of the biomarker response is lower compared to the accumulation of contaminants. Thus, the study of biomarkers could allow a more reliable assessment of the quality of water bodies than the monitoring of contaminant accumulation in the plant. During the spring 2015 campaign, a much broader biomarker panel was investigated to define the most relevant biomarkers for assessing water quality. A methodology for evaluating water quality is proposed, considering a biomarker analysis protocol: a first assay of Chlb and MDA is simple and less expensive. When no evidence of human impact is shown, no further analysis is required. On the other hand, when an alteration is highlighted, the analysis of other more specific biomarkers such as G6PDH and γ-GCS activities will be necessary. The response of γ-GCS activity is specific for metal stress, so the response of this biomarker should lead to the analysis of metals / metalloids in M. alterniflorum.
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Mohamad Baydoun. Intérêt du macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum pour la détection de contaminants dans l'environnement. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0087⟩. ⟨tel-02918191⟩

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