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Les stratégies d'aménagement à l'épreuve des aléas littoraux. L'épaisseur littorale : un paradigme émergent dans l'aménagement des territoires côtiers

Thomas Beillouin 1, 2 
Abstract : The high concentration of people and human activities on the coasts lead to an increase of coastal risks. While two-thirds of the world's population live within 100 km of the shoreline, this "coastalization" is strengthening and risk situations are multiplying in contact with various hazards, and more particularly erosion, submersion and flooding. For a long time, the relationship between ur- banization and the natural dynamics of the coastline has been regulated by the construction of sea defences. Today, these infrastruc- tures are questioned as much for their financial and environmental cost as for the deceptive sense of security they provide. In France, storm Xynthia, 2010, and then between 2013 and 2014 in wintertime the brutal erosion of the Aquitaine coast dramatically revealed the vulnerability of coastal areas, urging on research on risk management. Since then, geographers point out development as one of the main coastal risk factors. Therefore, the uncontrolled urbanization of both seaside and retrolittoral areas is the evidence of a model crisis, and today emphasized by the eects of climate change. This thesis postulates that taking coastal hazards into account is crucial to build a sustainable model. It also assumes that architects along with geographers can play a key role in its implementation. Through the metropolitan France case, this dissertation investigates a central hypothesis: mitigating risks considering the increasing attractiveness of coasts should rely on a qualitative reflection on coastal “wideness”. First of all, this work traces the links between the development models of the 19th and 20th centuries and coastal dynamics, highlighting their role in the production of coastal risks. Then, the analysis of five coastal territories, diverse in their geography and urbanization, reveals the contrasting strategies deve- loped today in France, from the most conventional to the most naturalistic: Le Barcarès, La Rochelle, Lacanau, Saint-Nazaire and Salin-de-Giraud (Camargue, city of Arles). Finally, after drawing lessons and gaps, the third part examines the possibility to better integrate buildings and natural dynamics. One can ask if this implies a renewal of urban and architectural design tools.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03335001
Contributor : Thomas Beillouin Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Sunday, September 5, 2021 - 7:03:45 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:54:00 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Monday, December 6, 2021 - 6:44:41 PM

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Thomas Beillouin. Les stratégies d'aménagement à l'épreuve des aléas littoraux. L'épaisseur littorale : un paradigme émergent dans l'aménagement des territoires côtiers. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est Sup, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-03335001⟩

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