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Theses

Le retour à meilleure fortune : Etude en droit des difficultés économiques

Abstract : Return to better fortune is a legal item, consisting in a better financial state to the debtor by lottery or by inheritance. In this way, the creditors can obtain payment if the debtor’s situation happens to improve suddenly. A long with the transfer of property in Antiquity, the debtor in good faith could only avoid prison by abandoning his property and committing to pay off the balance due following its sale if fortune were again to smile on him. These days, the civil law contains indirect echoes of this concept. Today, the law accords but little room to this payment cause of action against a debtor. It is true that, under public law, it still qualifies as a criterion for recovery of public aid in the family and social Code as well as in the local authorities Code. And under private law, freedom of contract allows deferral of debt to be made subject to a return to better fortune clause so as to organize reversibility of abandoning property. Article 2284 of the Civil code includes all newly acquired property within a general pledge to creditors. In this way, return to better fortune should be profitable to creditors: they can obtain payment. But, for the main part, this concept is today ill-supported by a law “not to pay one’s debts”. Whether to be a consumer or a professional, the debtor in good faith can obtain purge of his debts. The debtor’s obligation to pay is thus extinguished, even if fortune were again to smile on him. Only creditors whose rights can be preserved juridically, by purge of this debts, are alleged to be paid in such a situation. But for the main part, the debtor conserves the fruit of his return to better fortune. Such policy in favor of a second chance, sought by the European institutions, has lead to the French legislator adopting recovery-favorable measures: the taking over of a company in difficulty has been favored and reintegration of the failed facilitated. Certain hurdles to recovery have also been removed in this research : on the one hand, return to better fortune valued, on the other hand, this situation neutralized ; before taking up the actions in favor of a second chance for the debtor.
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David Defrance. Le retour à meilleure fortune : Etude en droit des difficultés économiques. Droit. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0041⟩. ⟨tel-03360704⟩

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