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"Une école pour chacun" ? L'autonomie enseignante face à l'injonction à la personnalisation. Enquête ethnographique au sein de trois lycées sur la réforme Chatel

Abstract : Presented as essential to respond to the growing heterogeneity of the school population, a logic of differentiation in the treatment of students accompanies the process of school massification in various forms. By committing educational agents to "personalize" the management of pupils and school careers, as part of a strengthened school autonomy, the Chatel reform of general and technological high schools updates this logic of school adaptation. This thesis questions the appropriations and effects of the Chatel reform in institutions from the angle of the coherence of the professional group and even more of what the injunction to personalisation does to the professional autonomy of teachers, understood as the group's ability to control the definition and practice of work. To do this, it relies on an ethnographic survey, carried out in three high schools, which combines observations of professional daily life and interviews with teachers as well as management staff. Thanks to the combined perspectives of the sociology of public action and the sociology of professional groups, the thesis shows that the ambivalent reconfigurations (fuelled by the reform) in the teachers’ view of their work and role, as well as in the relationships of work and power within institutions, tend to weaken the autonomy of the teachers as a professional group. On the one hand, if the margin of autonomy granted by the reform allows teaching teams to partially shape their working environment, they collide with the strengthening of the means of action of management staff and with their eased foray into pedagogical territory. On the other hand, beyond a common tendency to an increased workload, the injunctions and measures of the reform are the subject of contrasting practical logics and generate asymmetric effects on teachers’ experience of their work. These are linked to social trajectories and positions in the professional space which are themselves differentiated. Finally, the autonomy of a professional group also depends on its ability to think about and organize itself collectively. However, if the reform examined here can be the support of collective dynamics at the local level, it also participates in the fragmentation of professional experiences and reveals as much as it exacerbates divisions in professional conceptions and positions. This thesis thus contributes to shedding light on the recompositions of the working and organizational methods of the teachers group, at the heart of a tension between the process of segmentation and renewed ways of acting and thinking as a group.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 11, 2022 - 4:25:48 PM
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Camille Giraudon. "Une école pour chacun" ? L'autonomie enseignante face à l'injonction à la personnalisation. Enquête ethnographique au sein de trois lycées sur la réforme Chatel. Science politique. Université de Rennes 1, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-03720032⟩

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