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Physiopathologie de l'hypertension artérielle pulmonaire : rôle des facteurs vaso-actifs et de l'inflammation

Abstract : Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by intense pulmonary vascular remodelling affecting mainly the muscular pulmonary arteries and leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. When it occurs in the absence of associated conditions, PAH is regarded as idiopathic (iPAH). PAH represents a panvasculopathy in which each cell type constituting the vascular wall (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblast) plays a specific role. The aims of this work were to explore the implication of various pathways in the initiation or the progression of the disease. The various studies were carried out using pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) obtained during lung transplantation from patients with refractory PAH.Former studies have emphasized the major role of serotonin (5-HT) in the process of pulmonary vascular remodelling in iPAH. In a first study, we studied the respective role of 5-HT, the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and several 5-HT receptors (5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B) on PASMC proliferation in cells from patients with PH associated with various conditions. The results of this first study showed that 5-HTT overexpression in PASMC is a common pathogenic mechanism in various forms of PH.Inflammatory cytokines may affect pulmonary vascular remodelling in iPAH. Indeed, iPAH frequently reveals inflammatory infiltrates corresponding to macrophages, lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the range of plexiform lesions as well as in other vascular lesions. The mechanisms underlying pulmonary vessel infiltration by monocytes / macrophages are unclear and the role for inflammatory cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling remains to be elucidated. This second study showed that iPAH is associated with an overexpression of CCL2. PEC are a major source of CCL2, which behaves as chemoattractant for circulating inflammatory cells and as growth factor for PASMC.Germline mutations of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor type 2 (BMPR-2), a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor family, have been reported in nearly 70% of patients with the heritable form of the disease (hPAH), and in 10–30% of patients with sporadic iPAH. In a third study, we evaluated the functional consequences of BMPR-2 mutations on the endothelin 1 (ET-1) pathway which represents one of the therapeutic targets on PAH. The results of this third study showed that iPAH and hPAH were associated with a similar overexpression of ET-1. In contrast, ETA receptor mRNA levels which were increased in PASMC from patients with iPAH and hPAH compared to controls were much higher in hPAH than in iPAH cells. Consequently, the growth promoting effect of ET1 on PASMC was higher in PASMC from patients with iPAH, and was markedly elevated in PASMC from patients with hPAH. No changes in ETB receptor mRNA levels could be detected in PASMC from patients with iPAH or hPAH in comparison with controls.These results reveal that vasoactive factors (ET-1, 5-HT) and inflammatory factors play a determining role in the pathophysiology of PAH and could represent new therapeutic targets.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 26, 2012 - 4:41:16 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 19, 2021 - 4:08:17 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, April 27, 2012 - 2:36:09 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-00663325, version 1



Olivier Sanchez. Physiopathologie de l'hypertension artérielle pulmonaire : rôle des facteurs vaso-actifs et de l'inflammation. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010PEST0027⟩. ⟨tel-00663325⟩



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