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De la gestion des risques à la gestion des ressources de l’activité : étude de la résilience en anesthésie pédiatrique

Abstract : This research, which addresses patient safety, aims to develop a new approach to safety: resilience engineering. The thesis assumes that the resilience of a system, that is to say its ability to function under varying conditions expected or not, lies in the operators’ ability to articulate the management of risk with the management of their own resources. The analysis,conducted in the context of pediatric anesthesia and in collaboration with anesthetists, seeks to understand how professionals act in order to provide care in optimal conditions of comfort and safety, despite the uncertainties related to the complexity and the uncertainty of the human body. Three empirical studies were conducted to investigate this thesis. In addition to the observation of real work activity, interview techniques (critical incident technique and verbal protocols technique) and analyses of simulations were used. The first study allows the uncertainties and disruptions to be managed by anesthetists in their daily practice to be described. Two types of unexpected situations (possible situations and unthought situations) can be met. The way in which these situations are handled is not only related to the nature of the disturbances themselves, but mainly depends on their anticipation by operators in real conditions. The second study concerned the anticipation mechanisms of "possible situations" by the anesthetists. Results indicate that the definition of an envelope of possible situations is not only based on an assessment of patient’s risks, supported by rules and general knowledge in the field, but also on the evaluation and management of the team’s resources: the goal of anesthetists is to design situations adjusted to the resources of the various operators involved (themselves included) and/or that will be involved. Therefore, the anticipation takes into account the resources of the collective. Furthermore, this management aims not only at mastering the situation in the short term, but also at developing resources in the longer term. The third study concerns the management of an “unthought situation” which trespasses the envelope of a priori possible situations. Three ways to handle these unthought situations were identified: “cautious” management, “determined” management and “overwhelmed” management. The comparative analysis of the teams’ activities shows that the management of cognitive resources varies according to the way in which situations are handled. When facing unthought situations, teams not only attempt to manage the immediate risks to the patient but also to maintain a “sustainable control” of the situation, by avoiding misunderstandings within the group and by adapting care to teammates’ cognitive resources. Thus, the management of their own resources (skills, knowledge, know-how, rules of the trade, etc...) by operators is a key element for resilience. These results allow, on one hand, to identify organizational conditions favorable to the implementation of these processes of resource management developed by the operators and, on the other hand, to propose innovative methods for risk management in healthcare such as simulator training. While risk management is generally discussed in terms of “goals trade-off” between performance objectives and safety objectives, these results challenge this traditional opposition and question the models of performance underlying prevention methodologies.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 3, 2012 - 12:48:48 PM
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Lucie Cuvelier. De la gestion des risques à la gestion des ressources de l’activité : étude de la résilience en anesthésie pédiatrique. Psychologie. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CNAM0773⟩. ⟨tel-00665997⟩

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