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Conception et mise en oeuvre d'un télémètre à très haute exactitude pour application aux missions spatiales de vol en formation et à la caractérisation des grandes installations

Abstract : Beyond its use in geophysics or in large scale metrology, laser-based measurement of long distances is expected to find numerous applications in space missions. Synthetic aperture instruments in formation flight require that the constellation geometry be known and controlled to much better than the wavelength of the observation window. To meet these needs, we have been studying a novel laser ranging scheme that combine an interferometric measurement, performed on a two-mode laser beam, and a time of flight measurement. My thesis focused on the design, implementation, and characterization of the interferometric measurement. To prevent systematic errors due to slow drifts in the microwave components, the two phase measurements of optical wavelength (1.55 microns) and the synthetic wavelength (15 mm) are extracted from the same two-mode interference signal by using a dedicated measurement procedure: we perform interference signal measurements at three optical frequency values of the laser source, calculated based on the time of flight measurement result. The rangefinder utilizes the two-mode interference signal properties and exploits phase and amplitude of the 20 GHz signal in a manner to eliminate long-term phase drifts of the microwave signal in the measurement chain. We can expect in less than 0.1 s, a measurement with sub-nanometer accuracy and resolution. The experimental setup showed that the principle is correct. On an optical path measurement in air, we obtained a 100 pm resolution in 100 us, which allows us to observe the acoustic noise. The measurement signal noise allows expecting a 10 pm resolution in 43 ms. Optical imperfections in the setup have been observed. They were described by an analytical expression, then, using dedicated optics, they were reduced to the level required for the instrument operation. The phase of two-mode signal is affected to several 10-3 cycle errors which, if not corrected, result in errors in the measurement length by multiples of the optical wavelength. We performed a specific study of amplitude-to-phase coupling causing this deformation, and showed that it is part of thermal origin, related to the power of several kW/cm² dissipated in the 20 GHz photodiodes. This effect, close to what has been known for some years in microwave instrumentation under the name of "memory effects", is difficult to take into account and the correction made on the data can not completely prevent the rangefinder from delivering incorrect values of the distance. In concluding this thesis two options are presented to remedy this signal distortion and result in a high accuracy instrument.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 1, 2013 - 9:08:00 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 4, 2022 - 4:55:43 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00868028, version 1



Duy-Hà Phung. Conception et mise en oeuvre d'un télémètre à très haute exactitude pour application aux missions spatiales de vol en formation et à la caractérisation des grandes installations. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013NICE4038⟩. ⟨tel-00868028⟩



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