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Synthese of macrocyclic ligands bearing aromatic fragments and their use for the detection of metal cations

Abstract : The PhD thesis deals with the synthesis of polyazaligands using Pd-catalyzed amination of aryl halides. The manuscript consists of two parts. In the first part the scope of the Pd-catalyzed amination reaction for the synthesis of polyazamacrocyclic ligands is studied. The Pd-catalyzed amination of 2,7-dibromonaphthalene, 3,3’-dibromobiphenyl and 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridyl with linear polyamines and oxadiamines is thoroughly investigated, and corresponding nitrogen- and oxygen-containing macrocycles is synthesized in yields up to 45%. The dependence of the formation of macrocycles and cyclic oligomers on the nature of the starting compounds is established. Two alternative approaches to cyclic dimers are elaborated: a) via N,N’-bis(haloaryl) substituted polyamines and b) via bis(polyamine) substituted arenes. These approaches are shown to give different results for different arenes and polyamines, and the choice of the appropriate method allowed to obtain cyclic dimers in yields up to 44%. The conditions for N,N,N',N'-tetraarylation of oxadiamines using 2,7-dibromonaphthalene are worked out, and resulting tetrakis(bromonaphthyl) derivatives are employed in the synthesis of macrobicycles containing four naphthyl and three oxadiamine fragments. The majority of such macrobicycles are obtained as two isomers. To avoid the formation of these isomers an alternative route to macrobicycles is proposed. The macrocycles on the basis of 2,7-diaminonaphthalene and 3,3’-diaminobiphenyl are functionalized by two bromobenzyl substituents to give corresponding derivatives in quantitative yields. These compounds are reacted with linear di- and polyamines as well as with diazacrown ethers under catalytic conditions. As a result, a series of macrobicycles and macrotricycles are obtained, the highest yields being 30-35%. The efficiency of the reactions strongly depends on the nature of the arene moiety and the structure of employed polyamines. Bipyridyl-containing macrocycles are studied in binding Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ag+, Hg2+ cations using spectrophotometry, fluorescent and NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the complex with Zn2+ is elucidated by X-ray analysis. In the second part, the Pd-catalyzed amination reaction is used to develop selective chemosensors for heavy metal ions. Anthraquinone derivatives are chosen to elaborate colorimetric chemosensors using the Pd-catalyzed amination of corresponding halides. This method allows covalent binding of the signaling unit and a wide series of receptors what provides a quick and efficient screening of a great number of ligands. Using this approach, a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Cu2+ ions at physiological pH in water is developed. This chemosensor allows naked-eye detection of copper ions at 0.4 ppm concentration in the presence of 13 other metal cations, and the use of spectrophotometer lowers the detection limit to 20 ppb. Another selective chemosensor is elaborated for naked-eye detection of lead ions in aqueous medium at 1.3 ppm and higher concentration. Coordination of copper, lead and cadmium cations with the most selective ligands is studied in details using spectrophotometry, potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of the complexes are established and the nature of the color changes is discussed. The key role of the deprotonation of the aromatic amino group during the copper ion coordination is demonstrated. The color change caused by the lead ion coordination is explained by the coordination of the metal ion to the aromatic amino group.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00915467, version 1



Alexey Uglov. Synthese of macrocyclic ligands bearing aromatic fragments and their use for the detection of metal cations. Other. Université de Bourgogne; Université Lomonossov (Moscou), 2011. Russian. ⟨NNT : 2011DIJOS062⟩. ⟨tel-00915467⟩



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