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Invasion, démographie et évolution : le cas de l'hybridation

Abstract : This thesis deals with the invasion biology of the western corn rootworm, (WCR) in Europe. Multiple introductions of this pest in Europe from the United States and the 90’s, led to the formation of two main invasive outbreaks, genetically differentiated and located in Northwest Italy (NW Italy) and in Central and South-Eastern Europe (CSE Europe). Both outbreaks converged towards each other and came into contact in 2008, in the region of Veneto (Northern Italy). The main objective of these three years of research was to detect study and document a precise case of hybridization during a biological invasion. First of all, I showed that the contact zone detected in Veneto results in a hybrid zone. For that, several types of population genetics analyses were performed using microsatellite markers. In a second time, I exploited this hybrid zone and used the theory of neutral clines and the linkage disequilibrium to estimate dispersal (σ) of WCR in Northern Italy around 20 km.generation-1/2. Finally I showed the absence of impact of hybridization in the european invasion of WCR in natura, by measuring on hybrid and parental genotypes, numerous phenotypic traits positively associated to the fitness of individuals. Thus, a selection or a selection against hybrids is excluded in this particular case of hybridization and the invasion dynamics of WCR in Europe should not be affected in any way.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 14, 2014 - 12:47:09 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 4, 2022 - 4:57:11 PM
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Gérald Bermond. Invasion, démographie et évolution : le cas de l'hybridation. Sciences agricoles. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013NICE4134⟩. ⟨tel-00959382⟩

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