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Caractérisation et suivi du dégazage des principaux édifices volcaniques actifs de l'arc insulaire du Vanuatu par télédétection

Abstract : Recent developments on UV spectrometer applications to volcanic degassing offer possibilities for regular measurement of the emission rates of isolated volcanoes whose SO2 output has never or rarely been measured: the only volcanic degassing measurements obtained in Vanuatu were taken in 1999 on just one of Vanuatu's 6 active aerial volcanoes. This thesis describes volcanic degassing studies carried out on 4 active volcanoes of Vanuatu. It brings to light permanent sources of SO2 and halogens on Ambrym and Yasur volcanoes. Degassing measurements were also performed during eruptive events on Aoba/Ambae and Lopevi. Overall results indicate that Vanuatu volcanoes are considerable sources of SO2 and halogens. These sources are related to cyclic and permanent manifestations; they were so far poorly documented, and not taken into account in the overall global assessments. A conservative estimate of the emission rate from these four active volcanoes (Aoba, Ambrym, Lopevi and Yasur) is of the order of 61 kg/s, which represents some 11 to 20 % of the global SO2 release into the atmosphere from volcanoes. Such quantities affect the local ecosystems and result in serious loss of plants and crops critical to the survival of Ni-Vanuatu populations; they occasionally endanger their health and safety. A better understanding of these volcanic gas emissions is an important factor in hazard mitigation for the Vanuatu island group.
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https://theses.hal.science/tel-00962260
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Submitted on : Friday, March 21, 2014 - 12:06:39 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 1:42:58 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, June 21, 2014 - 10:41:59 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00962260, version 1

Citation

Philipson Bani. Caractérisation et suivi du dégazage des principaux édifices volcaniques actifs de l'arc insulaire du Vanuatu par télédétection. Volcanologie. Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006NCAL0015⟩. ⟨tel-00962260⟩

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