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Etude de deux régulateurs de l’APC/C et de leurs rôles dans le contrôle du cycle cellulaire et de la cohésion lors de la méiose chez Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that generates haploid gametes. At meiosis, two divisions follow a single DNA replication event leading to ploidy halving. A stepwise sister chromatids cohesion release also occurs to allow the two successive balanced rounds of chromosome segregation. In addition to general cell-cycle regulators, meiosis requires specific proteins. The aim of this thesis was to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to two successive balanced chromosome segregations. We show that OSD1 promotes meiotic progression through APC/C inhibition and we identified a functional network between OSD1, CYCA1;2/TAM and TDM in Arabidopsis. This functional network controls three key steps of meiotic progression; the prophase-meiosis I transition, the meiosis I-meiosis II transition and the meiosis exit. In addition, we characterized the two Arabidopsis thaliana Shugoshin paralogs, which are conserved proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion protection. We also identified Patronus, an uncharacterized protein, as a novel protector of meiotic centromeric cohesion. We suggest that Patronus is a novel APC/C regulator that prevents cohesins release during meiotic interkinesis. This work identified two APC/C regulators essential for meiosis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 17, 2014 - 10:30:14 AM
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Laurence Cromer. Etude de deux régulateurs de l’APC/C et de leurs rôles dans le contrôle du cycle cellulaire et de la cohésion lors de la méiose chez Arabidopsis thaliana. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112046⟩. ⟨tel-00978052⟩

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