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Transmission hétérosexuelle de HIV : visualisation et modélisation de l'infection de la muqueuse génitale féminine

Abstract : Heterosexual transmission of HIV from men to women is the main route of contamination by this agent worldwide. This mode of transmission involves the contact between infected semen and healthy female genital mucosa, and then the crossing of cell-free or cell-associated viruses through the mucosa. The mechanisms involved in HIV transmission from men to women as well as the role of seminal plasma in selective transmission of R5-tropic viruses stay partially unknown. During the course of my PhD we visualized the crossing of cell-associated and cell-free virus through the endocervical genital mucosa. Initially, the study focused on the transmigration of infected immune cells through an in vitro model of endocervical mucosa, as well as on the role of seminal plasma in HIV transmission and selection of R5-tropic strains. Afterwards, we developed a fluorescent, replicative competent, infectious chimeric virus allowing its detection by confocal microscopy after several replication cycles. After contact of the endocervical mucosa with X4- or R5-tropic chimeric viruses, we visualized by confocal microscopy the infection of endocervical epithelial cells and the transmission of HIV to immune cells placed in the basal compartment. The use of a mathematical model allowed standardizing and quantifying the detection of infected cells in the mucosa. My PhD work describes as a first step the importance of the crossing of cell-associated HIV particles in the heterosexual transmission, as well as the involvement of seminal plasma in the selection of R5-tropic strains. Moreover, the virological model developed herein allows the direct visualization of HIV transmission through the female genital mucosa. I have thus demonstrated that it is possible to localize and quantify viral particles within the mucosa. This virological tool help to better understand the mechanisms involved in HIV heterosexual transmission and the selection of R5-tropic strains
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 22, 2014 - 12:52:09 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00981483, version 1


Rachel Terrasse. Transmission hétérosexuelle de HIV : visualisation et modélisation de l'infection de la muqueuse génitale féminine. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012STET004T⟩. ⟨tel-00981483⟩



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