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Importance des ROS et des radicaux : de la graine à la membrane plasmique

Abstract : The aim of this work is to define the effects of adverse environmental conditions on seed quality of A.thaliana, H.annuus, B.oleracea et H.vulgare), characterize two A.thaliana mutants affected in plasma membrane proteins and characterize the activity of the two proteins. Seeds were harvested from plants subjected to drought and/or thermal stress. Then O₂•⁻ and organic radicals in seeds were measured showing no impact of the stress. Accelerated ageing had a negative effect on seed vigor and viability. Radicals have been identified by high field EPR: epi-catechin and Mn(II) in the testa and melanin in the pericarp. There was no correlation between these radicals and the seed quality, therefore these radicals were not found to be good markers of seed quality. A.thaliana KO mutants of quinone reductase (QR) and AIR12 have been characterized. QR are cytosolic enzymes that have an affinity for the membrane. QR catalyze the reduction of quinone to dihydroquinone. Thus they are known to be protective enzymes against oxidative stress. However, at alkaline pH, dihydroquinone deprotonize and form semiquinones and O₂•⁻. AIR12 is a b561 cytochrome anchored to the apoplastic side of the membrane. These proteins could be implied in a transmembrane electron transport via vitamin K1. Recombinant proteins and NQR and AIR12 were produced. At alkaline pH, AIR 12 was reduced by the semiquinone, AIR12 could form a redox couple with vitamin K1 as electron shuttle across the membrane. In the presence of plasma membrane, the production O₂•⁻ was increased with NQR and reduced with NQR and AIR12. QR appear to have an anti- and pro-oxidant according to the conditions and AIR12 an anti-oxidant role. Electron transfer between the two proteins could be done via the semiquinone at alkaline pH and via O₂•⁻.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01456224, version 1

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Catherine Biniek. Importance des ROS et des radicaux : de la graine à la membrane plasmique. Amélioration des plantes. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS483⟩. ⟨tel-01456224⟩

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