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Observation et modélisation des interactions entre conditions d'enneigement et activité des stations de sports d'hiver dans les Alpes françaises

Abstract : The industrial activity of ski resorts is based upon multiple concerns including social, economic, environmental and climatic issues which ski resorts stakeholders have to cope with.In the early 1990's ski resorts experienced several consecutive seasons with poor snow conditions in the European Alps when climate and environmental questions were discussed as a global concern after the United Nations held their first international conferences on climate change. This raised the interest of ski resorts stakeholders and representatives of host communities for reliable and relevant indicators of climate induced impacts on snow conditions and on the related economic activity of ski resorts.This research focused on the role played by ski resorts operators in crossing socio-economic concerns with meteorological and snow concerns, to provide a modelling approach of dynamics and interactions between snow conditions (variability, low predictability) and human activities (defined by purposes and means). The objectives pursued by operators, the means they employ (grooming, snowmaking) and constraints they face (meteorological, structural or organization issues) have been investigated through a survey of 55 French ski resorts and frequent discussions with four partner ski resorts (Tignes, Autrans, Les Deux Alpes, Chamrousse). A physically based modelling approach of the impact of grooming and snowmaking on snow properties was integrated in a snowpack model and evaluated with respect to field observations in the four partner ski resorts over two consecutive winter seasons. This was crossed with a socio economic database of ski resorts to provide an explicit spatial modelling of managed snow conditions on ski slopes for the entire French Alps ski resorts. This method was applied for the 1958 - 2014 period and snow indicators were defined and computed, revealing a significant correlation of snow reliability indicators with economic data on ski resorts. This approach therefore proved its ability to provide relevant indicators of snow conditions in ski resorts with respect to economic implications and may be used for further prospective investigations of evolutions of facilities and/or climate change impacts on snow conditions and the related economy of the ski industry.
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https://theses.hal.science/tel-01563278
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Submitted on : Monday, July 17, 2017 - 3:07:11 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, May 1, 2022 - 4:00:28 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, January 27, 2018 - 1:27:55 AM

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SPANDRE_2016_archivage.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-01563278, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00054376

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Pierre Spandre. Observation et modélisation des interactions entre conditions d'enneigement et activité des stations de sports d'hiver dans les Alpes françaises. Sciences de la Terre. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAU034⟩. ⟨tel-01563278⟩

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