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Systematic assessment of the role of Dynein regulators in oriented cell divisions by live RNAi screen in a novel vertebrate model of spindle orientation

Abstract : Mitotic spindle orientation is involved in cell fate decisions, tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. In many contexts, spindle orientation is controlled by the LGN molecular complex, whose subcortical localization determines the site of recruitment of the dynein motor which exerts forces on astral microtubules orienting the spindle. In vertebrates, there is missing information about the molecules regulating the formation of the complex and those working downstream of it. This prompted us to screen for new regulators of vertebrate spindle orientation. For this, I developed a novel model of spindle orientation specifically controlled by the LGN complex. Using this model, I performed a live siRNA screen testing 110 candidates including molecular motors for their function in spindle orientation. Remarkably, this screen revealed that specific dynein regulators contribute differentially to spindle orientation. Moreover, I found that an uncharacterized member of the dynactin complex, the actin capping protein CAPZ-B, is a strong regulator of spindle orientation. Analyses of CAPZ-B function in cultured cells showed that CAPZ-B regulates spindle orientation independently of its classical role in modulating actin dynamics. Instead, CAPZ-B controls spindle orientation by modulating the localization/activity of the dynein/dynactin complexes and the dynamics of spindle microtubules. Finally, we demonstrated that CAPZ-B regulates planar spindle orientation in vivo in the chick embryonic neuroepithelium. I expect that my work will contribute to the understanding of dynein function during vertebrate spindle orientation and will open the path for new investigations in the field.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01592476, version 1

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Maria Florencia Di Pietro. Systematic assessment of the role of Dynein regulators in oriented cell divisions by live RNAi screen in a novel vertebrate model of spindle orientation. Cellular Biology. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066405⟩. ⟨tel-01592476⟩

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