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Modélisation du couplage mutuel présent dans un réseau d'antennes : étude théorique et applications au radar MIMO et à un contexte RFID

Abstract : Modeling of the Mutual Coupling Present in an Antenna Array: TheoreticalStudy, Applications to MIMO Radar and RFID ContextMutual coupling is an electromagnetic phenomenon that can occur in antenna arrays. It is due to the electromagnetic interactions that occur between the elements of an antenna array and induce a modification of the intrinsic parameters of the antennas. Taking into account mutual coupling in antenna arrays, when designing them or in antenna processing algorithms, provides access to the real radiation characteristics of each array element which can, for example, improve target detection/localization performance using a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar. In an RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) context, modeling mutual coupling makes it possible to model the system formed by a set of tags and to decide on the behavior of the system in a given configuration. This thesis focuses on the modeling of the mutual coupling present in an antenna array. We first new method for the active element pattern synthesis based on solving optimization problems in the least squares sense to find the complex weights that model electromagnetic interactions between network elements. These complex weights can be used as excitation laws to be applied to an isolated antenna describing the positions of the array elements, in order to experimentally study the behavior of an array of antennas. This mutual coupling modeling is then applied in a MIMO radar context where we show that it is possible to synthesize the radiation pattern of the active element on an experimental MIMO radar platform composed of a single transmitting and a single receiving antenna that moves on rails in predefined positions. On reception, the matrix of received signals is obtained by applying the principle of superposition. We also sought to model mutual coupling by proposing a theoretical formulation of the mutual impedance between the elements of an array of fine dipoles randomly distributed in a plane in order to apply this mutual coupling modeling to an RFID context, where the tags, represented by the dipoles, are scattered in a plane and illuminated by a reader. We also proposed a theoretical formulation of the input impedance of the surrounding dipole and studied the effects of mutual coupling on the two parameters involved in the balance of an RFID link: the adaptation (bandwidth) and the radiation pattern of the surrounding dipole. We have shown that it is possible to synthesize the radiation pattern of the surrounded dipole and to find the modification of the adaptation of the surrounded dipole, which, in the long term, would allow to decide on the read rate and/or the reading distance of an RFID communication in a high density context.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02371942, version 1

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Ayichatou Gueye. Modélisation du couplage mutuel présent dans un réseau d'antennes : étude théorique et applications au radar MIMO et à un contexte RFID. Electronique. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1154⟩. ⟨tel-02371942⟩

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