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L'EMPREINTE ECOLOGIQUE : Proposition d'un modèle synthétique de représentation des empreintes à l'échelle " Micro " d'une organisation ou d'un projet

Abstract : Ecological footprint, at a national and global level, proposes a kind of "ecological balance" that assesses and compares biologically productive area supply and demand. If the success of this index at a national level is proven (living planet reports, for example), we assume that, to help each organisation or person to apprehend its own contribution to ecological footprint, it can be helpful to develop methods of estimation of ecological footprint at organisational level. The classical method of ecological footprint calculation is based on the calculation of equivalence and yield factors thanks to national statistics of areas and tons of productions. Then, statistics of national consumptions (taken into account production, importations and exportations of products) are translated into global hectares representing global average biologically productive areas that are necessary to produce the resources that are consumed and the wastes that are generated by each country. Thus, for a given sub national system (city or organisation, for example), two methods can be used to have an idea of its ecological footprint : (1) The national account based approach is based on the corrections of factors from the different national averages of consumptions. For an organisation whose consumptions are very different from an average household, this method does not appear to be satisfying, (2) The component-based approach that is based on an inventory of the various consumptions and wastes generated by the observed system, the calculation of standards or specific (when standards factors are not available) conversion factors based, for example on life-cycle analysis studies. This method seemed to the authors of his paper more appropriate to evaluate the ecological footprint of a productive activity. However, it requires several methodological adaptations to the classical ecological footprint methods and it presents some limitations. These adaptations and limitations will be presented in this paper. In order to precise these adaptations requirements and limitations, we developed and experimented such a component-based approach on a real case. Our application field is a road work on the RN7 - RN 82 to turn a section into a four-lane road, between Cosne sur Loire and Balbigny, France This is a particularly complex case as it involve several participants (the Loire's departmental service for equipment is the prime contractor, the works are done by private companies) and is constituted by various very different phases of activity (earth-works, road way construction, etc.).
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 15, 2013 - 3:46:30 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00776465, version 1

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Ibtissam El Bouazzaoui. L'EMPREINTE ECOLOGIQUE : Proposition d'un modèle synthétique de représentation des empreintes à l'échelle " Micro " d'une organisation ou d'un projet. Sciences de l'environnement. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008EMSE0023⟩. ⟨tel-00776465⟩

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