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Adaptations neuromusculaires des muscles extenseurs du genou : contractions fatigantes uni- vs bi-latérales

Abstract : The aim of this work was to determine i) the influence of the level of absolute force on the duration of the endurance time, and subsequent neuromuscular alterations in same individual at the end of an exercise performed at the same relative intensity, with one or two legs, ii) the influence of central drive on the force capacity production of the knee extensor muscles during unilateral (UL) vs. bilateral (BL) contractions, iii) activation mechanisms evolution for a serie of submaximal evoked contractions by electrostimulation (EMS). The results of the first study confirm that the endurance limit depends on the level of absolute force for the same individual, contraction duration for UL is 20% longer than for BL. In addition, a correlation was found between the maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC) and the endurance time in UL and BL. However, other mechanisms also appear to be involved, because in one case the mechanisms are nervous and muscular (UL), while in other cases the mechanisms are only nervous (BL). The results of the second study show that maximal force developed during BL contraction is less than the sum of the forces of UL contraction (i.e. a bilateral deficit). The timing of MVC peak force production during each leg of MVC are not different from that of BL MVC, but the force developed during the latter is less than the sum of MVC in both legs during the BL MVC, i.e. the maximum force produced by each leg during BL MVC. However, no difference in EMG activity, M-wave amplitude, doublet and level of activation was observed between UL and BL conditions. The results of the third study show that the estimation of the central drive, by the technique of superimposed twitch during a submaximal fatiguing effort presents methodological bias. However, estimation of neural mechanisms with both conventional methods (voluntary level activation (VAL) and central activation ratio (CAR)) remains relevant during maximal voluntary contractions. This work évidences the presence of different nervous mechanisms between UL and BL contractions
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Boris Matkowski. Adaptations neuromusculaires des muscles extenseurs du genou : contractions fatigantes uni- vs bi-latérales. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010DIJOS094⟩. ⟨tel-00796850⟩

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