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Essais et modélisation du cisaillement cyclique sol-struture à grand nombre de cycles. Application aux pieux

Abstract : A series of monotonic and cyclic 2D direct shear tests on sand (Fontainebleau)-rough/smoothmaterial interfaces under constant normal load (CNL) and constant normal stiffness (CNS)conditions are presented. The aim of these tests is to simulate the situation along the shaftof piles subjected to a large number of cycles due to environmental or anthropic loadings.These cycles (typically 104) are of small amplitude (10, 20 and 40 kPa in terms of shearstress) as the service loads are not supposed to produce an early failure. These tests in-clude the series of changing the cyclic amplitude in succession. The problem of loss of sandbetween the box and the rough plate, typical phenomenon in this type of test, receives aspecial attention. It is interesting to observe, according to the initial density, the positionof the ”center of cycles” in the stress plane (mean cyclic variables). Several factors such asinitial density (ID0), initial normal stress (_n cm0), level of initial mean cyclic stress ratio(_cm0), reduced cyclic amplitude (__) and imposed normal stiffness (in this thesis, k =1000, 2000 and 5000 kPa/mm) that influence the intensity of mean cyclic normal ([u]cm)and shear ([w]cm) displacements are considered. Along CNL paths either dilation or con-traction is exhibited, in agreement with the characteristic state developed by Luong. Theinfluence of the stress path (under constant normal stress or prescribed normal stiffness)is also highlighted. It should be highlighted that CNS paths are ever contractive. Themodel of monotonic interface behaviour under CNL and oedometer paths is fully analyt-ical and based on the rate-type framework with the normal relative displacement or theinterface density as unique memory parameter. While the analytical formulations for iden-tification are first proposed to describe the interface behaviour under cyclic CNL condition,the variation of cyclic amplitude and CNS condition are modeled by applying the analyticalformulations for validation using finite analytical increments and introducing the notion ofequivalent number of cycles. For numerical simulations by the FEM (Plaxis) these tests areinterpreted and formulated according to a pseudo visco-plastic framework, the number ofcycles being a fictitious time. The direct shear tests and two centrifuge pile tests (pull-outand compression) are also modeled. Recommendations are proposed for the calculation ofreal usual piles under cyclic loading. This thesis is one part of the national French project”ANR and National Program SOLCYP” (Research on behaviour of piles subjected to cyclicloading).
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Suriyavut Pra-Ai. Essais et modélisation du cisaillement cyclique sol-struture à grand nombre de cycles. Application aux pieux. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENI001⟩. ⟨tel-00809729⟩

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